Endotoxins and Endotoxins (4star!!) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endotoxins and Endotoxins (4star!!) Deck (28):
1

what produces endotoxins

gram (--) bacteria--> are a part of outer membrans and are released when the bacteria lyse

2

what three things in body do endotoxins activate

1. macrophages
2. complement
3. tissue factor

3

what three cytokines do activated macrophages produce and their effect

1. IL-1 = fever
2. TNF = fever, hypotension
3. NO = hypotension

4

What two complements are activated by endotoxin and effects

1. C3a = hypotension, edema
2. C5b = neutrophil chemotaxis

5

What does activated tissue factor do and what complication can ensue

activates coagulation cascade --> can result in DIC

6

what kind of bacteria make exotoxin

gram + --> is a preformed toxin

7

how do superantigens work

bind simultaneously to MHC II and TCRs to stimulate many T-cells = MASSIVE cytokine release

8

3 symptoms of toxic shock syndrome

1. high fever
2. hypotension
3. diffuse rash

9

what 8 toxins are secreted by Staph aureus

1. α toxin--> hemolysis
2. β toxin--> sphingomyelinase
3. γ toxin--> A+B sub = hemolysin; B+C= leukocidin
4. hemolysin
5. Leukocidin
6. Enterotoxins A-E--> vomiting and diarrhea
7. TSST-1--> toxic shock syndrome
8. Epidermolytic/ exfoliative toxin --> scalded skin syndrome

10

what two bacteria can cause toxic shock syndrome

1. Staph aureus
2. group A strep (s. pyogenes)

11

What three toxins does S. pyogenes secrete?

1. Streptolysin O--> hemolysis
2. Streptolysin S--> hemolysis
3. Erythrogenic/ pyrogenic toxins

12

which strep pyogenes toxin is used to test for strep and the one responsible for hemolysis on blod agar plate

Streptolysin O --> is oxygen labile

13

which strep toxin is responsible for scarlet fever

pyrogenic/ erythrogenic toxins

14

toxin inactivates EF-2 , causes pseudomembranes (how does it inactivate?)

Diptheria toxin--> via ADP ribosylation

15

toxin other than diptheria that acts at EF-2

exotoxin A of pseudomonas

16

cleaves host cell rRNA in 60s subunit at adenosine (2 toxins)

1. Shiga toxin
2. veracytotoxin (Shiga-like toxin)--> made by 0157:H7 E.coli

17

what complication can 0157:H7 E. coli cause

hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

18

symptoms of HUS

1. hemolytic anemia
2. thrombocytopenia
3. acute renal failure

19

2 toxins produced by ETEC, what do they do

1. heat labile toxin--> ↑ cAMP = Cl- and H20 secretion
2. heat stabile toxin--> ↑ cGMP = less Na and water reabsorption

20

ETEC causes

travelers diarrhea

21

organism causing pseudoappendicitis

Yersinia enterocolitis

22

Yersinia toxin MOA

increases cGMP

23

edema factor, lethal factor, protective antigen; how does edema factor work

Bacillus anthracis--> increases cAMP

24

cholera toxin MOA

binds irreversibly to Gs subunit--> cAMP increases

25

pertussis toxin MOA

binds to and inactivates Gi--> cAMP increases, no way to turn it off

26

blocks release of GABA and glycine

tetanospasmin (tetanus toxin)--> spastic paralysis

27

flaccid paralysis--> how and what organism

botulism toxin (exotoxins A-G)--> inhibit release of ACh

*babies get from honey; people from canned foods w/ preformed toxin

28

what two toxins does C. perfringens have; how they work

1. α-toxin --> is a phospholipase, causes gas gangrene and myonecrosis
2. enterotoxin--> food poisoning, produced in food that is left out after cooking (spores grow that have survived cooking process)

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