Flashcards in Cell Bio: Cytoskeleton and Cytoplasm Deck (21)
Cytoskeletal filaments from smallest to largest
2. intermediate filaments
Two components that make up mictrotubules
Alpha and beta tubulin
B tubule is oriented towards + or - end of MT?
+ end, one distal to nucleus
Dynein moves which way
retrograde (from + to - ends)
Kinesin moves which way
anterograde ( - to + end)
Cilia are important in what three places in body
1. respiratory tract
2. paranasal sinuses
3. fallopian tubes
What structure links peripheral 9 doublets in the 9+2 arrangement of microtubules in a cilia?
Axonemal dynein (ATPase that causes bending of cilia)
What disease results from axonemal dynein arm defect?
Primary ciliary dyskinesis, aka Kartagener's Syndrome
Main 4 issues in Kartagener's syndrome?
2. chronic sinusitis
4. situs inversus (50% of cases)
*bronchiectasis + chronic sinusitis + situs inversus is pretty diagnostic; situs inversus b/c cilia important in organ placement during development
What intermediate filament is present in connective tissue ( fibroblasts, leukocytes, endothelium) that can be stained for? What CA can the stain be useful in detecting?
Vimentin--> stains can help ID sarcomas
What int. filament is found in muscle cells? Stains can help ID what CA?
Desmin--> myosarcomas (rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcomas, etc.)
What int. filament can be stained for in epithelial cells? What CA?
Cytokeratin--> carcinomas (cancers of epithelial cell origin)
What int. filament is found in glial cells? CA stains?
GFAP (glial fibrillary acid proteins)--> astrocytomas (glioblastoma)
What int. filament is found in neurons?
What int. filament is found specifically in the axons within neurons? CA?
Neurofilaments--> neuroblastomas (in adrenal medulla in kids)
*What int. filaments are found in the nuclear envelope and the DNA within?
Laminins (A, B, C types)
What two dz can result form mutated laminins?
1. Progeria (early aging of cells, wrinkly skin on 5 y.o.)
2. Muscular dystrophy
What structures allow for coordinatd movement of cilia on different cells?
What are 5 drugs/ drug classes that interfere with microtubule function?
1. Vinca alkyloids --> Vincristine, Vinblastine
2. Taxanes --> Paclitaxel, Docetaxel
3. Benzimidazoles --> Mebendazole, Albendazole, Thio-
4. Griseofulvin--> antifungal
What disease results from impaired microtubule-dependent sorting of endosomal proteins in late multivesicular endosomes?
Chediak-Higashi syndrome--> due to mutation in lysosomal trafficking regulator gene (LYST); recurrent pyogenic infections, partial albinism, peripheral neuropathies