Enviromental Emerency Flashcards Preview

Module 2 > Enviromental Emerency > Flashcards

Flashcards in Enviromental Emerency Deck (59):
1

Homeostasis

Maintaining constant suitable conditions within body

2

Thermal Gradient

Difference in temperature between environment ( ambient temperature) and body

3

Thermogenesis

Heat generation

4

Thermoregulatory thermogenesis

Controlled by endocrine system

5

Thermolysis

Loss of heat

6

Evaporation

Body heat lost by evaporation of perspiration

7

Convection

Body heat lost to air

8

Conduction

Body heat lost to nearby objects

9

Radiation

Body heat lost to nearby objects without touching them

10

Unclothed person will lose ____ of body heat by radiation at room temperature

60%

11

Thermoregulation

Maintenance or regulation of temperature

12

Hypothalamus

Base of brain; responsible for temperature regulation; functions as thermostat

13

Peripheral thermorecepters

Skin and mucous membranes

14

Central thermorecepters

Deep tissues

15

Hyperthermia vasodilation

Blood carries heat to periphery for dissipation through skin

16

Signs of Thermolysis

Diaphoresis
Increased skin temp
Flushing
AMS
ALOC

17

Predisposing factors of hyperthermia

Age of patient : pedi and geri populations tolerate less variation in temperature
Health of patient : diabetics can become hyperthermia more easily (poor circulation)
Medications
Acclimation

18

Predisposing factors medications for hyperthermia

Diuretics- predispose to dehydration
Beta - blockers : interfere with vasodilation
Psychotropics and antihistamine : interfere with central Thermoregulation.

19

Heat cramps

Muscle cramps; over exertion and dehydration in prescence of atmospheric.
Sweating : loss of water; loss of electrolytes
Intermittent cramping of skeletal muscles may occur

20

Signs and symptoms of heat cramps

Painful ; not actual heat illness
Fingers, arms , legs, abdominal muscles
Mentally alert, weakness, dizzy , and faint
Vitals signs stable
Temp normal, slightly elevated
Skin warm and moist

21

Heat exhaustion

Mild heat illness; acute reaction to heat exposure
Loss of water and sodium with vasodilation
Decreased circulating blood volume, venous pooling, reduced cardiac output.

22

Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion

Dehydration and electrolyte loss account for signs and symptoms
If not treated , may progress to heatstroke
Increased body temp, skin cool and clammy with heavy perspirations, breathing and shallow, weak pulse.
Diarrhea, muscle cramps, weak, maybe LOC
If CNS symptoms, treat for heatstroke

23

Heatstroke

Hypothalamic temperature regulation lost; uncompensated hyperthermia.
Cell death; damage to brain; liver , kidneys

24

Heatstroke occurs at a temperature of at least ?

105 degrees
40.6 C

25

Exertional heatstroke

Good health; increased core body temp caused by overwhelming heat stress.

26

Heatstroke from exertion can lead to

Metabolic acidosis
HyperK

27

Dehydration in heat disorders

Inhibit vasodilation and Thermolysis
Orthostatic hypotension

28

Hypothermia

Low core body temp below 95 degrees
And 35 C

29

Mild hypothermia

Core temp greater then 90 degrees (32C) with signs and symptoms of hypothermia

30

Signs and symptoms of mild hypothermia

-Tachycardia
-Shivering
-Vasoconstriction
-Tachypnea
-Fatigue; impaired judgement

31

Signs and symptoms of moderate hypothermia

-Cold induced hypothermia
-Hypotension
-Respiratory depression
-AMS
-Loss of shivering

32

Signs and symptoms of severe hypothermia

-Coma
-Apnea
-Ventricular arrhythmias or asystole

33

Temperatures below ___ cause significant increase in mortality rate.

86degrees (30 C)

34

Severe hypothermia asses pulse and RR for at least ___ secs every __ to __ minutes.

30 seconds
1 minute
2 minutes

35

Rewarming shock

Application of external heat causing reflex peripheral vasodilation.

36

Cold diuresis

Core vasoconstriction causes increased blood volume and blood pressure.
Kidneys remove excess fluid to reduce pressure.

37

If a V-Fib is detected in a hypothermia arrest, deliver a single shock at ___?

360 joules

38

Subsequent defibrillations or blouses of medication avoided until core temperature is ___?

86 degrees (30 C)

39

Frostbite

Environmentally induced freezing of body tissues.
Ice crystals form within; water drawn out of cells into extra cellular space.

40

Risk factors

Age
Poor general health
Fatigue
Predisposing medical conditions
Certain meds

41

Superficial frostbite (frostnip)

Some redness of epidermal tissue, redness, blanching, diminished sensation.

42

Deep frostbite

Epidermal and subcutaneous layers; white appearance, hard (frozen) to palpation, loss of sensation
Extremities , head , face

43

Drowning

Respiratory impairment as result of submersion or immersion in liquid

44

Drowning results in

Mortality (death)
Morbidity (having medical problems)
No morbidity (no problems)

45

Drowning is the ____ most accidental death in the U.S.

Third

46

Surfactant

Substance in alveoli responsible for keeping alveoli open

47

Submerged for less than ___ minutes resuscitate

60

48

Under water ____ min or ____ ; cannot be resuscitated

60 min or less

49

Mammalian dive reflex

02 sent and used only where immediately needed to sustain life

50

Boyle's Law

Volume of gas inversely proportional to its pressure if temperature kept constant
-As you increase pressure, gas compressed into smaller space

51

Dalton's Law

Total pressure of mixture of gases equal to sum of partial pressures of individual gases

52

Henry's Law

Amount of gas dissolved in given volume of fluid proportional to pressure of gas above it

53

As diver goes deeper into water, pressure increases, causing more gas to dissolve in blood

Henry's law

54

Gases will have smaller volume because of increased ambient pressure

Boyles law

55

Bends or dysbarism; rapid reduction of air pressure while ascending to surface following exposure to compressed air

Decompression sickness

56

Holding breath during ascent

Pulmonary over pressure

57

Altitude at which high-altitude illnesses start to manifest

2,400 m (8,000 ft)

58

High altitude , hypoxia environment without major distribution of normal O2 transport

(4,900 to 11,500 ft)

59

Unacclimatized person who ascends rapidly at 2,000 meters (6,600ft or greater)

Acute Moutan sickness