Flashcards in Enviromental Emerency Deck (59):
Maintaining constant suitable conditions within body
Difference in temperature between environment ( ambient temperature) and body
Controlled by endocrine system
Loss of heat
Body heat lost by evaporation of perspiration
Body heat lost to air
Body heat lost to nearby objects
Body heat lost to nearby objects without touching them
Unclothed person will lose ____ of body heat by radiation at room temperature
Maintenance or regulation of temperature
Base of brain; responsible for temperature regulation; functions as thermostat
Skin and mucous membranes
Blood carries heat to periphery for dissipation through skin
Signs of Thermolysis
Increased skin temp
Predisposing factors of hyperthermia
Age of patient : pedi and geri populations tolerate less variation in temperature
Health of patient : diabetics can become hyperthermia more easily (poor circulation)
Predisposing factors medications for hyperthermia
Diuretics- predispose to dehydration
Beta - blockers : interfere with vasodilation
Psychotropics and antihistamine : interfere with central Thermoregulation.
Muscle cramps; over exertion and dehydration in prescence of atmospheric.
Sweating : loss of water; loss of electrolytes
Intermittent cramping of skeletal muscles may occur
Signs and symptoms of heat cramps
Painful ; not actual heat illness
Fingers, arms , legs, abdominal muscles
Mentally alert, weakness, dizzy , and faint
Vitals signs stable
Temp normal, slightly elevated
Skin warm and moist
Mild heat illness; acute reaction to heat exposure
Loss of water and sodium with vasodilation
Decreased circulating blood volume, venous pooling, reduced cardiac output.
Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion
Dehydration and electrolyte loss account for signs and symptoms
If not treated , may progress to heatstroke
Increased body temp, skin cool and clammy with heavy perspirations, breathing and shallow, weak pulse.
Diarrhea, muscle cramps, weak, maybe LOC
If CNS symptoms, treat for heatstroke
Hypothalamic temperature regulation lost; uncompensated hyperthermia.
Cell death; damage to brain; liver , kidneys
Heatstroke occurs at a temperature of at least ?
Good health; increased core body temp caused by overwhelming heat stress.
Heatstroke from exertion can lead to
Dehydration in heat disorders
Inhibit vasodilation and Thermolysis
Low core body temp below 95 degrees
And 35 C
Core temp greater then 90 degrees (32C) with signs and symptoms of hypothermia
Signs and symptoms of mild hypothermia
-Fatigue; impaired judgement
Signs and symptoms of moderate hypothermia
-Cold induced hypothermia
-Loss of shivering
Signs and symptoms of severe hypothermia
-Ventricular arrhythmias or asystole
Temperatures below ___ cause significant increase in mortality rate.
86degrees (30 C)
Severe hypothermia asses pulse and RR for at least ___ secs every __ to __ minutes.
Application of external heat causing reflex peripheral vasodilation.
Core vasoconstriction causes increased blood volume and blood pressure.
Kidneys remove excess fluid to reduce pressure.
If a V-Fib is detected in a hypothermia arrest, deliver a single shock at ___?
Subsequent defibrillations or blouses of medication avoided until core temperature is ___?
86 degrees (30 C)
Environmentally induced freezing of body tissues.
Ice crystals form within; water drawn out of cells into extra cellular space.
Poor general health
Predisposing medical conditions
Superficial frostbite (frostnip)
Some redness of epidermal tissue, redness, blanching, diminished sensation.
Epidermal and subcutaneous layers; white appearance, hard (frozen) to palpation, loss of sensation
Extremities , head , face
Respiratory impairment as result of submersion or immersion in liquid
Drowning results in
Morbidity (having medical problems)
No morbidity (no problems)
Drowning is the ____ most accidental death in the U.S.
Substance in alveoli responsible for keeping alveoli open
Submerged for less than ___ minutes resuscitate
Under water ____ min or ____ ; cannot be resuscitated
60 min or less
Mammalian dive reflex
02 sent and used only where immediately needed to sustain life
Volume of gas inversely proportional to its pressure if temperature kept constant
-As you increase pressure, gas compressed into smaller space
Total pressure of mixture of gases equal to sum of partial pressures of individual gases
Amount of gas dissolved in given volume of fluid proportional to pressure of gas above it
As diver goes deeper into water, pressure increases, causing more gas to dissolve in blood
Gases will have smaller volume because of increased ambient pressure
Bends or dysbarism; rapid reduction of air pressure while ascending to surface following exposure to compressed air
Holding breath during ascent
Pulmonary over pressure
Altitude at which high-altitude illnesses start to manifest
2,400 m (8,000 ft)
High altitude , hypoxia environment without major distribution of normal O2 transport
(4,900 to 11,500 ft)