Nutrition And Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Module 2 > Nutrition And Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition And Metabolism Deck (26):
1

Minerals

Inorganic ions released through the dissociation of electrolytes

2

Vitamins

Essential organic nutrients released to lipids and carbohydrates

3

Fat-Soluble vitamins

A
D
E
K

4

Water - soluble vitamins

B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, folic acid, biotin

5

Nutrition

Absorption of nutrients through food

6

Metabolism

All the chemical reactions that occur in the body

7

Metabolites

Chemicals produced in the body as a result of chemical reactions

8

Cellular metabolism

Chemical reactions occurring within the cells, needed to maintain homeostasis as well as perform essential functions to maintain life.

9

Catabolism

Breakdown of organic molecules to release energy and synthesize ATP

10

Anabolism

Synthesis of new organic molecules, involves formation of chemical bonds

11

Metabolic rate

Sum of all anabolic and catabolic reactions at time of measurement

12

Basal metabolic rate

Minimum resting energy expenditures of an awake, alert person

13

Nutrient pool

Stores of amino acids, lipids, and simple sugars present in cells to be used for anabolism

14

Absorptive state

Time during and shortly after eating when nutrients enter the blood from the GI tract

15

Post-absorptive state

Period when GI tract is empty and body reserves are broken down to supply energy

16

Aerobic metabolism

Chemical reactions that involve the breakdown of glucose using O2

17

Anaerobic metabolism

Chemical reactions that involve the breakdown of glucose without O2

18

Coenzymes

Organic molecules needed for enzymatic reactions to occur

19

Substance level phosphorylation

High energy phosphate transferred directly from a substance to ADP to ATP
-Occurs during glycolysis and Kreb's cycle

20

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Capturing energy to form ATP is coupled with movement of substances (protons)
-Occurs during electron transport chain

21

Glycolysis

1. Glucose enters the cell through Glut-4 transporter
2. ATP+Enzyme are needed to convert glucose to glucose
3. A second ATP makes one long carbon chain with two phosphates on either side
4. Becomes 3 carbon chains
2nd ATP spent total
5. Add Pi to other side of each chain

22

Nutrients

Essential substances (Water, vitamins, ions, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) obtained from the diet and absorbed from the digestive tract.

23

Why does lactic acid build up in tissues?

Due to inadequate amount of O2 being delivered to those tissue effected.

24

What is the goal of the TCA cycle?

To provide electrons and protons for the electron transport chain from carbon chains

25

What is the role of 02 in the electron transport chain?

To be the final acceptor , form water.

26

In the absence of glucose, what other organic molecules are available to form one of the precursors for the TCA cycle?

Amino acids and fatty acids