Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reproductive System Deck (61):
1

Two cycles of cell division

Meiosis I and Meiosis II

2

Mitosis somatic cell division

One cycle of cell division that results in 2 identical (diploid) daughter cells.

3

Meiosis

Two cycles of cell division that results in 4 haploid cells

4

Gonads

Reproductive organs that produce hormones and reproductive cells

5

Gamets

Reproductive cells
-Oocytes
-Sperm

6

Fertilization

One sperm cell and one Oocyte unite
-Forms a Zygote

7

Testis

Male reproductive organ

8

Scrotum

(Contains testes)
Lined by serous membrane to reduce friction

9

Sperm
(Spermatozoa)

Reproductive cells produced by testis

10

Cremaster muscle

Pulls testes closer to body with contraction due to temperature

11

Semi ferrous tubules

-80cm tightly coiled
- structures to 1/2 mile
- initial location of sperm production
- tubules surrounded by sperm filled with loose connective tissue and interstitial cells

12

Spermatogonia

Youngest stage of the sperm cell
(Stem cell)

13

Sustentacular cells

Nourish development sperm cells

14

Interstitial cells

Produce androgens
(Testosterone)

15

Testosterone

Secreted into the blood supply and diffuses from interstitial cells to sustencular cells.
(They are in close proximity)

16

Spermatogenesis

Senses of cell division that ultimately produce sperm.
-With each division, sperm cells moves close to lumen.
*Mitosis, Mitosis I, Mitosis II

17

Mitosis

Spermatogonia (stem cells)
-Will divide for entire adult life of male
-Equals 2 diploid cells from one diploid cell
-One remains a stem cell, one is pushed toward the lumen to change into primary spermatocyte

18

Diploid cells

23 pairs of chromosomes
*46 chromosomes total*

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Haploid

23 chromosomes

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Meiosis I

primary spermatocyte
1) Replication of diploid cells (tetrad)
2) Possible Crossing over - part of chromosomes switch with another one
3) the results are a secondary spermatocyte


21

Meiosis II

1)Receives Secondary spermatocyte from meiosis I
2) Splits them up into 4 cells containing 23 chromosomes each Haploid cells
3) Spermiogenesis - physically maturation of spermatid

22

Sperm cell

Physically mature but immobile

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For sperm cells to become mobile, they must undergo

CAPACITATION

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CAPACITATION

Mix with secretion of seminal vesicles
-Be exposed to conditions of female reproductive tract

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Efferent Duct

Contains cilia sweeps the sperm cells into the Epididymus

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Epididymus

1) Adjust fluid composition of semi ferrous tubules
2) Recycle damaged spermatozoa
3) Store maturing spermatozoa

27

Duct Deferens (Vas Deferens)

-Track toward prostate gland
-Enclosed by spermatic cord
*Sheath of connective tissue and muscle, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics.
-Propels sperm by peristalsis

28

5 major functions

1) growth
2) Metabolism
3) movement
4) responsiveness
5) reproduction

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4) Seminal Vesicles

Sperm enter the ejaculatory duct
Seminal vesicles contribute 60% of semen
-Fructose for E
- Prostaglandin = promotes SMC contractions
- Fibrinogen = form clot in vagina
* One of the components to make sperm motile

30

5) Prostate gland

-20-30% of vol semen
- Seminal plasma (Prevent UTI)

31

6) Bulbourethral glam

-Secrete sticky mucous to neutralize urinary acids

32

Penis

Tubular organ that introduce semen into females vagina during intercourse. Conducts urine to exterior.

Root = point of attachment to body
Shaft = contains erectile tissue
Glans = surrounds external urethral meatus

33

Parasympathetic innervation of penile arteries

1) Neurons release nitric oxide
2) Vasodilation + Erection

* when giving nitro to a pt on ED meds, it can cause wide spread vasodilation - hypotension.

34

Testicular torsion

Twisting of spermatic cord cuts off blood supply to tests

35

Priapism

Erection not associated with sexual arousal

*Spinal cord injury = opposed parasympathetic stimulation
Usually lumbar area
Cuts off upper and lower

36

LH

GnRH to hypophyseal postal system
Ant pituitary release LH and FSH (water soluble)
LH goes to LHR , and targets interstitial cells (produce testosterone)
Testosterone will diffuse into the cells cause lipid soluble in sustencular cells
And will be released into the bloodstream

37

FSH

Susententacular cells have FSH receptors
Produce androgen binding proteins
Binds testosterone
Maintain high concentrations of testosterone (maintain gradient)
Equals Spermatogenesis
Passive

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High Sperm count

*Low sperm count

39

Circulating T causes Negative feedback to hypothalamus anterior pituitary

Inhibits GNRH and FSH LH

40

T effects in the bloodstream

60% binds to sex hormone binding globulin
(SHBG)
38% binds to albumin
2% unbound (free)
That's leads to release of DHT ( dihydrotestoterone) and estradiol

41

Ovaries

Female reproductive organ

42

Ovaries produce

Ova (plural)
Ovum (singular)
Hormones
Oocyte

43

Oogensis

Production of egg
-Begins before birth/ ends at menopause

44

Mitosis in females

-Begins before birth
Oogonia (stem cells) divide before birth to form primary Oocyte (daughter cell)

45

Meiosis I in females

(Before Birth)
-Placed on hold until puberty
Then once monthly to form secondary Oocyte
(Gets all cytoplasm) And polar body (not functional)
Primary Oocyte going to enter

46

Meiosis II in females

Secondary Oocyte is going to be released and is waiting for sperm
If fertilization occurs form another polar body (inactive) and one haploid cell (ovum =mature egg)
Fertilization - mixing by of nucleus (zygote)

47

Ovarian cycle

Follicle development and ovulation
-28 day cycle

48

Follicular phase

(Days 1-14)
2 Oocyte

49

Ovarian follicle

Surrounds, protects, promotes growth of Oocyte
-Primardial Oocyte follicle (simple squamous layer) primary oocyte
-Primardial becomes primary follicle. Primary follicle has simple squamous that becomes simple cboidal.
-primary becomes secondary follicle has stratified cuboidal that are now called granulosa cells
-secondary Oocyte

50

Ovulation

Day 14
Secondary Oocyte released from follicle
Follicular wall ruptures, contents released into pelvic cavity, swept in uterine tone
(Negative feed back to positive feedback)
Rise in estrogen equals rise in GnRH which equals rise in rise in FSH/LH

51

Luteral Phase

(Days 14-28)
Corpus Luteum will discernergrate in 12 days if no fertilization
If fertilization will remain open and secrete hormones until placenta forms
Corpus letueum secretes estrogen and progesterone which inhibits GnRH
(Ensures for no further follicular development)

52

Uterine cycle

28 days

53

Fallopian tubes

13cm
Moves Oocyte to uterus with peristalsis

54

Menses

Days (1-7)
-Degradation of superficial functional zone of endometrium
- changes in hormones, endometrial arteries constrict
- Due to deprivation of 02 and nutrients, arterial walls ruptures, blood pours into connective tissue of functional area, sloughing of tissue = Menstration

55

Proliferation Phase

(Days 7-14)
-Surviving epithelial cells multiply and spread across the surface of the endometrium

56

Secretory Phase

Days 14-28
-Glands enlarge, endometrium prepare for arrival of embryo
- Persists as long as corpus/uterine remains intact

57

Endocrine function of the follicular phase

1) FSH unregulates the number of LHR on grandulosa cells
2) LH stimulates production of estrogen
3)No significant increase or decrease in amount of FSH or LH but increase number of LHR equals increased sensitivity to LH which equals increase estrogen and that stimulates OOGENESIS
(Negative Feedback)

58

Endocrine function in ovulation

1) Estrogen stops negative feedback inhibition toward hypothalamus
2) Decreased sensing of estrogen equals increased GnRH release which leads to rise in FSH/LH
(Positive Feedback)

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Endocrine function during the luteal phase

1) Convert back to negative feedback , decreased FSH/LH
2) Corpus Luteum secrets estrogen and progesterone which inhibits GnRH
3)Ensures no further follicular development and oogenesis
4)Progesterone inhibits SMC contractions

60

Vagina

-Elastic muscular tube
1) Receives penis during intercourse
2) Passageway for fetus during delivery
3) Passageway for elimination of menstrual fluids

61

Ovarian torsion

Twisting of the Fallopian tube cutting of the blood supply.