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Flashcards in Pregnancy And Development Deck (35):
1

Differenation

One cell becomes trillions = different cell types

2

Development can be broken down into two different segments

Prenatal development
Post natal development

3

Prenatal development

Fertilization = zygote
Uterus 0-8 = embryo
Uterus 9-40 = fetus

4

Postnatal development

Birth > maturity

5

Development

Gradual modification of anatomical structures and physiologic characteristics from conception to maturity.

6

Zygote

1cell
As soon as it becomes 2 cells > blastomere

7

Morula

Solid ball of cells after 3 days of cleavage (diuding)

8

Blastula

Inner cell mass - will feed embryo
Trophoblast - will feed embryo
Hollow
( 2 days only)

9

Implantation

Days 7-10
Ball of cells must borrow into endometrium and plant roots in order to obtain nutrients and 02

10

Gastrulation

Formation of ger in layers (rearrangement of cells)

11

Extra embryonic structures

1) Yolk Sac
2) Amnion
3) Alantois
4) Chorion

12

Yolk Sac

Will be important site of blood formation

13

Amnion

Encloses amniotic fluid that surrounds and cushion embryo

14

Alantois

Gives rise to urinary bladder, accumulates urine from embryo

15

Chorion

Rapid transit system linking embryo trophoblast (provides nutrition to embryo)

16

Place ration

Formation of placenta ( derived from the Chiron) beginning in week 3.
*as the embryo enlarges, it further separates from the uterine wall > umbilical cord begins to form

17

Ectoderm

Nervous System , skin

18

Mesoderm

Circulatory, musculoskeletal, kidneys

19

Endoderm

Digestive structures, lungs

20

Placental Hormones

HCG = human chorionic gonadotropin
Released into blood stream after implantation, similar to LH, maintains corpus Luteum until placenta manufactures own progesterone (3-4mos)

21

Umbilical cord contains

1)Allantois
2) Yolk sac
3) Blood Vessels
*One umbilical vein
* Two umbilical arteries

22

Second Trimester

Rapid growth

23

Third Trimester

Fully functional organs

24

Maternal Changes in Pregnancy

1) Increased RR and Tidal Volume
2) Increased Blood Volume by 50% by end of gestation
3) Increased requirement for nutrients and vitamins by 10-30%
4) Increased GFR by 50%
5) Increased size of uterus and mammary glands

25

Paturition

Forcible expulsion of fetus from uterus

26

Labor contractions

1)Fetal growth
2) Fetal release of oxytocin
3) maternal release of oxytocin
4) increased prostaglandin production
5) Labor contractions
6) Positive Feedback

27

1) Dilation stage

1) onset of labor
2) cervix dilates, fetus slides down cervical canal
3) 8+ hrs
4) contraction 1 every 10-30 min
5) amniotic sac may rupture

28

2) Expulsion stage

1) cervix pushed open by fetus
2) fetus emerges from vagina
3) arrival of newborn to word (Birth)
*Crowning*

29

For mane oval

Hole between Right and Left atrium

30

Ductus arteroius

Pulmonary trunk and aorta

31

Epiostomy

Incision through perineal musculature if fetus is too large

32

C-Section

Surgical removal of infant through abdominal wall

33

3) Placental Stage

1) Muscle tension builds uterus, uterus decreased in size
2) Contraction = placenta becomes detached from uterine wall
3) Placenta delivered = 1hr within fetus

34

Postnatal Development

1) Neonatal Period > Birth > 1month
*Passing through the birth canal squeezes fluid out of lungs
*A powerful inhalation is required to fill thoracic with air
*Changes in thoracic pressure shift to high pressure L heart > leads to closing of fomeamen ovale and ductus arteriousus (within 48hrs)
*Digestive system releases meconium (bile, mucous, epithelial cells)
* Infant can't keep warm
* Colostrum = mammary glands release
-Contain protein, AB, 2-3 days post birth

35

At birth / shortly after

-Foramen ovals closes
-Ductus arteriousus becomes ligamentum arteriosum
**Failure of closure = Cardiovascular problems**