Flashcards in Immunology Deck (26)
Exaggerated response by immune system to foreign substance
The two most common causes of fatal anaphylaxis?
Bee and wasps stings
400-800 deaths annually in US attributed to anaphylaxis
Principal body system involved in allergic reactions
Responsible for combating infection
Components found in blood, bone marrow, lymphatic system.
Destruction or inactivation of pathogens, abnormal cells, foreign molecules such as toxins
Goals of immune response
Direct attack of foreign substance by specialized of immune system.
Chemical attack of invading substance
Principal chemical agents of this attack are?
Antibodies are manufactured by specialized cells of immune system called
Humoral immune response begins with exposure of body
Any substance capable of inducing a immune response
Inital response to antigen
Several days are required before both cellular and humoral components of immune system respond
Antibodies specific for offending antigen.
Antigen specific antibodies more effective
Inital exposure of individual to antigen ; results in immune response
Most common cause of fatal anaphylaxis
Second most frequent cause of fatal anaphylaxis
IgE release histamine, heparin and other substances
Principal chemical mediator of allergic reaction is
Potent substance which causes bronchoconstriction , increased intestinal motility, vasodilation, increased vascular permeability
And the skin
Principal body systems affected by anaphylaxis
End tidal CO2 level may climb due to development of both ?
Respiratory and metabolic acidosis
Involves direct attack of the foreign substance by specialized cells of the immune system.
*these cells physically engulf and deactivate or destroy offending agent*
Chemical attack of the invading substance
*The principal chemical agents of this attack are antibodies, also called immunoglobulin
The initial exposure of an individual to an antigen
Food and food additives
Insects (Hymenoptera stings) and insect parts
Fungi and molds
Radiology contrast materials
Smooth muscle, endothelial cells
-Acute allergic reactions