Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (52)
Follicle stimulating hormone
Anti diuretic hormone (vasopressin)
Thyrotropin releasing hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Growth hormone (somatotropin)
Growth hormone releasing hormone
Released from hypothalamus, inhibits release of GH from anterior pituitary
Prolactin inhibiting hormone
Glandular secretory cells that release secretions into ECF
Glandular secretory cells that release secretions onto an epithelial surface.
Endocrine cells that release chemicals to affect ADJACENT cells.
Endocrine cells that release chemicals to affect DISTANT cells and tissues by transport in the blood.
Hormones released by the Anterior Pituitary
FSH-Follicle stimulating hormone
LH- Lutenizing hormone
ACTH -Adrenocorticotropic releasing hormone
TSH- thyroid stimulating hormone
PRL - prolactin
GH - growth hormone (somatotropin)
Hormones released by the Posterior pituitary
ADH- Anti diuretic hormone (vasopressin)
Two capillary networks are joined by a portal vessel.
Hypophyseal portal system
A capillary network at the base of the hypothalamus is connected to a capillary network in the anterior pituitary for the purpose of ensuring direct delivery of hypothalamic hormones to target cells of the anterior pituitary before they are exposed to general circulation
Synthesized in the hypothalamus, released from the posterior pituitary. Stimulates smoothie muscle contractions in wall of uterus during labor and delivery. Participates in milk-letdown in mammary glands, and may have a role in sexual arousal for both males and females
Results from decreased release of ADH or failure of kidneys in responding to ADH, causes increase urine/polyuria and can lead to fatal dehydration.
Anti diuretic hormone
Synthesized in the hypothalamus, released from posterior pituitary. Targets water re absorption in kidneys, can cause peripheral vasoconstriction in high concentrations
Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)
Synthesized and released from follicles of thyroid gland, travel in blood bound to transport proteins, cross cell membrane and bind to mitochondria, resulting in increased rate of ATP production, increased rate of cellular metabolism and 02 consumption, and increased body temp/heat release.
Synthesized and released from parafollicular cells (c-cells) of thyroid gland, released in response to elevated plasma calcium, inhibits osteoclast activity and increases reveal calcium excretion.
Synthesized and release from chief cells of the parathyroid glands, released in response to decreased plasma calcium, promotes osteoclats activity, inhibits renal calcium excretion, stimulates calcitrol, which increases calcium absorption in digestive tract.
Alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans (Pancreas)
Synthesis and release of glucagon
Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans ( Pancreas)
synthesis and release of insulin
Gonadotropin releasing hormone
Synthesized and release from anterior pituitary in response to GH-RH from hypothalamus, targets liver, muscle, and adipose tissue to use lipids for energy metabolism
Corticotropin releasing hormone
Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone
Synthesized in hypothalamus , responds in release to insulin like growth factors 1 and 2 to inhibit the release of GH
Melanocyte stimulating hormone
Not produced in adults
Not axis known
Target melano sites , responsible for skin color
What inhibits ADH?
Alcohol or caffeine
What causes ADH(vasopressin) to be released?
Increased osmotic pressure
Decreased in blood volume
To much TRH or TSH, not responsive to negative feedback, to much T3 or T4
Can cause A-Fib
Weight loss, tachycardia
Structural and functional changes in body
Elevation of T3andT4
Can be fatal in 48 hrs
Decrease T3 T4
3 sections of the adrenal gland
Affect glucose metabolism
Cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone
(Ex. Soul-medrol, prednisolone)
Responsible for glucose sparring effect
Cons of glucocorticoid
Suppression of white blood cells which cause prolonged wound healing.
Tumor of the adrenal medulla
Increased metabolic rate
Increased HR, sweating, palpitations, HTN
Control of digestive function
Local control of the digestive system
Chemicals released into interstitial fluid that affect only a small segment of the digestive tract.
Paracrine as opposed to endocrine
(Ex. Histamine > Stomach > release of acids)
Neural Control of Digestive functions
Enteric neural system (ENS) sub mucosa and muscularis externa contain nerve fibers
-Enteric neurons utilize pacemaker cells and local reflex arcs to generate GI tract motility
-ANS interacts with ENS