Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (52):
1

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

2

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone

3

LH

Lutenizing hormone

4

ADH

Anti diuretic hormone (vasopressin)

5

OT

Oxytocin

6

TRH

Thyrotropin releasing hormone

7

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone

8

GH

Growth hormone (somatotropin)

9

PRL

Prolactin

10

GH-RH

Growth hormone releasing hormone

11

Somatostatin

Released from hypothalamus, inhibits release of GH from anterior pituitary

12

PIH

Prolactin inhibiting hormone

13

T3

Triiodothyronine (thyroxine)

14

T4

Tetraiodothryonine (thyroxine)

15

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

16

Endocrine cells

Glandular secretory cells that release secretions into ECF

17

Exocrine cells

Glandular secretory cells that release secretions onto an epithelial surface.

18

Paracrine Communication

Endocrine cells that release chemicals to affect ADJACENT cells.

19

Endocrine Communication

Endocrine cells that release chemicals to affect DISTANT cells and tissues by transport in the blood.

20

Hormones released by the Anterior Pituitary

FLATPEG
FSH-Follicle stimulating hormone
LH- Lutenizing hormone
ACTH -Adrenocorticotropic releasing hormone
TSH- thyroid stimulating hormone
PRL - prolactin
Endorphins
GH - growth hormone (somatotropin)

21

Hormones released by the Posterior pituitary

ADH- Anti diuretic hormone (vasopressin)
OT- oxytocin

22

Portal system

Two capillary networks are joined by a portal vessel.

23

Hypophyseal portal system

A capillary network at the base of the hypothalamus is connected to a capillary network in the anterior pituitary for the purpose of ensuring direct delivery of hypothalamic hormones to target cells of the anterior pituitary before they are exposed to general circulation

24

Oxytocin

Synthesized in the hypothalamus, released from the posterior pituitary. Stimulates smoothie muscle contractions in wall of uterus during labor and delivery. Participates in milk-letdown in mammary glands, and may have a role in sexual arousal for both males and females

25

Diabetes Insipidus

Results from decreased release of ADH or failure of kidneys in responding to ADH, causes increase urine/polyuria and can lead to fatal dehydration.

26

Anti diuretic hormone

Synthesized in the hypothalamus, released from posterior pituitary. Targets water re absorption in kidneys, can cause peripheral vasoconstriction in high concentrations

27

Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)

Synthesized and released from follicles of thyroid gland, travel in blood bound to transport proteins, cross cell membrane and bind to mitochondria, resulting in increased rate of ATP production, increased rate of cellular metabolism and 02 consumption, and increased body temp/heat release.

28

Calcitonin

Synthesized and released from parafollicular cells (c-cells) of thyroid gland, released in response to elevated plasma calcium, inhibits osteoclast activity and increases reveal calcium excretion.

29

Parathyroid hormone

Synthesized and release from chief cells of the parathyroid glands, released in response to decreased plasma calcium, promotes osteoclats activity, inhibits renal calcium excretion, stimulates calcitrol, which increases calcium absorption in digestive tract.

30

Alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans (Pancreas)

Synthesis and release of glucagon

31

Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans ( Pancreas)

synthesis and release of insulin

32

GnRH

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

33

Growth Hormone

Synthesized and release from anterior pituitary in response to GH-RH from hypothalamus, targets liver, muscle, and adipose tissue to use lipids for energy metabolism

34

CRH

Corticotropin releasing hormone

35

GHIH

Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone
(Somatostatin)
Synthesized in hypothalamus , responds in release to insulin like growth factors 1 and 2 to inhibit the release of GH

36

MSH

Melanocyte stimulating hormone
Not produced in adults
Not axis known
Target melano sites , responsible for skin color

37

What inhibits ADH?

Alcohol or caffeine

38

What causes ADH(vasopressin) to be released?

Increased electrolyte
Increased osmotic pressure
Decreased in blood volume

39

To much TRH or TSH, not responsive to negative feedback, to much T3 or T4

Hyperthyroidism

40

Graves' disease

Autoimmune disorder
Can cause A-Fib
Weight loss, tachycardia
Structural and functional changes in body

41

Thyroid storm

Life-threatening
Elevation of T3andT4
Irritability
Coma
Tachycardia
HTN
Can be fatal in 48 hrs

42

Hypothyroidism

Decrease T3 T4

43

Goiter

Enlarged thyroid
(Hypothyroidism)

44

3 sections of the adrenal gland

Mineral corticosteroids
Glucocorticoids
Androgens

45

Glucorticoids

Affect glucose metabolism
Cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone
(Ex. Soul-medrol, prednisolone)

46

Cortisol

Responsible for glucose sparring effect

47

Cons of glucocorticoid

increased BGL
Anti-Inflammatory effects
Suppression of white blood cells which cause prolonged wound healing.

48

Phenochromocytoma

Tumor of the adrenal medulla
Increased metabolic rate
Increased BGL
Increased HR, sweating, palpitations, HTN

49

Control of digestive function

Local
Neural
Hormonal

50

Local control of the digestive system

Chemicals released into interstitial fluid that affect only a small segment of the digestive tract.
Paracrine as opposed to endocrine
(Ex. Histamine > Stomach > release of acids)

51

Neural Control of Digestive functions

Enteric neural system (ENS) sub mucosa and muscularis externa contain nerve fibers
-Enteric neurons utilize pacemaker cells and local reflex arcs to generate GI tract motility
-ANS interacts with ENS

52

Aldosterone (conservation of sodium ions) increases sodium reabsorption in the kidneys
*causes release of aldosterone
ACTH release is due to stress, hypovelmia, infection
Increased plasma potassium
Angiotensin II

Mineral corticosteroids