Hematology/Oncology Flashcards Preview

Module 2 > Hematology/Oncology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology/Oncology Deck (31):
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The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of blood diseases and cancer and research into them.

Hematology-oncology

1

Iron deficiency anemia, hemophilia, sickle cell disease, leukemias, and lymphomas, cancer of organs are diseases of?

Hematology-oncology

2

The study of blood and blood-forming organs.

Hematology

3

Red blood cell disorders
White blood cell disorders
Platelet disorders
Coagulation problems

Hematologic disorders

4

Blood loss
Decreased or faulty RBC production
Destruction of RBC

Anemias

5

Sickle cell anemia
Iron deficiency
Vitamin deficiency- pernicious
Bone marrow/stem cell production- hemolytic/aplastic
Gestational

Types of anemia

6

Inherited disorder that affects African Americans.
Red blood cells become crescent - shaped because of genetic defect.
They break down rapidly, so oxygen does not get the body's organs, causing anemia.
The crescent shaped blood can cells also get stuck in tiny blood vessels, causing pain.

Sickle cell anemia

7

Disease of a cell
Abnormal cell structure
Uncontrolled growth
Ability to spread
Ability to invade normal tissue (lack

Cancer

8

1. Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels
2. Cancer cells are transported by the circulatory system to distant sites
3. Cancer cells reins de and grow at new location

Invasion and metastasis

9

Tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis

Benign ( not cancer )

10

Cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites.

Malignant ( cancer )

11

Biopsy
Lab results
Diagnostic imaging
Endoscopy

Diagnosis of Cancer

12

Carcinogenic chemicals
Carcinogenic radiation
Cancer viruses or bacteria

Cancer prevention

13

Chemotherapy and biological therapies
Radiation therapy
Surgery


Physicians also plan treatments based on several key factors, such as the type and stage of cancer, as well the person's age, health, and lifestyle.

Cancer treatments

14

Treatment side effects

N+v, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia, pain

15

Pain from tumor that is pressing on organs, nerves, or bones
Blockage of an organ or canal in the body
Metastasis (cancer cells that have spread to other site in the body)
Infection or inflammation
Side effects from chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery

Causes of pain from cancer

16

A clinical condition re silting from metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, hematologist, and/or infectious change caused by cancer or its treatment that requires immediate intervention to prevent loss of life or quality of life.

Oncologic emergencies

17

Skin- jaundice/pallor/bruising
GI- Epitaxsis/ Nausea / melena
Cardiorespiratory - CP/ dyspnea/ tachycardia

Assessment of circulation in oncology emergencies

18

Laryngeal Ca
Thyroid Ca
Lymphoma
Metastatic lung ca

Upper airway obstruction by Malignancy

19

Small cell lung ca
Squamous call lung ca
Lymphoma
Mediastinal ca
SVC thrombosis from in dwelling catheter
So are due to SVC compression or occlusion

Superior Vena Cava (SVC) syndrome

20

Breast ca
Lung ca
Prostate ca
Lymphomas
Multiple myeloma
Renal cell ca
Sarcomas

Acute Spinal Cord Compression

21

Need lab test for true diagnosis
Electrolyte imbalances often due to dehydration or disease progression
Thrombocytopenia is common among oncology pt

Metabolic/bleeding disorders

22

Vague malaise/ weakness
Polydipsia
Lethargy/ confusion
Constipation
Vomiting
Back pain
Can have coma or seizure

Malignancy hypercalcemia

23

Decrease platelet count due to bone marrow suppression from chemo/radiation or disease (leukemia)

Avoid all NSAIDs
Spontaneous bleeds can occur

Thrombocytopenia

24

Pericardial effusion develops and compresses ventricle reducing cardiac output and collapsing the right atrium increasing venous back pressure

Pericardial Tamponade

25

The side effects of chemotherapy severely interferes with cell division in particular the production and maintenance of blood products via the bone marrow

Neutropenic sepsis

26

A systemic response to infection

Sepsis

27

Hypo perfusion with organ dysfunction or hypotension

Severe sepsis

28

Body's response to an overwhelming infection characterized by persistent hypotension

Septic shock

29

Uncontrolled growth of cancer cells

Proliferation

30

spread cancer cells

Metastasis