Flashcards in Hematology/Oncology Deck (31):
The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of blood diseases and cancer and research into them.
Iron deficiency anemia, hemophilia, sickle cell disease, leukemias, and lymphomas, cancer of organs are diseases of?
The study of blood and blood-forming organs.
Red blood cell disorders
White blood cell disorders
Decreased or faulty RBC production
Destruction of RBC
Sickle cell anemia
Vitamin deficiency- pernicious
Bone marrow/stem cell production- hemolytic/aplastic
Types of anemia
Inherited disorder that affects African Americans.
Red blood cells become crescent - shaped because of genetic defect.
They break down rapidly, so oxygen does not get the body's organs, causing anemia.
The crescent shaped blood can cells also get stuck in tiny blood vessels, causing pain.
Sickle cell anemia
Disease of a cell
Abnormal cell structure
Ability to spread
Ability to invade normal tissue (lack
1. Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels
2. Cancer cells are transported by the circulatory system to distant sites
3. Cancer cells reins de and grow at new location
Invasion and metastasis
Tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis
Benign ( not cancer )
Cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites.
Malignant ( cancer )
Diagnosis of Cancer
Cancer viruses or bacteria
Chemotherapy and biological therapies
Physicians also plan treatments based on several key factors, such as the type and stage of cancer, as well the person's age, health, and lifestyle.
Treatment side effects
N+v, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia, pain
Pain from tumor that is pressing on organs, nerves, or bones
Blockage of an organ or canal in the body
Metastasis (cancer cells that have spread to other site in the body)
Infection or inflammation
Side effects from chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery
Causes of pain from cancer
A clinical condition re silting from metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, hematologist, and/or infectious change caused by cancer or its treatment that requires immediate intervention to prevent loss of life or quality of life.
GI- Epitaxsis/ Nausea / melena
Cardiorespiratory - CP/ dyspnea/ tachycardia
Assessment of circulation in oncology emergencies
Metastatic lung ca
Upper airway obstruction by Malignancy
Small cell lung ca
Squamous call lung ca
SVC thrombosis from in dwelling catheter
So are due to SVC compression or occlusion
Superior Vena Cava (SVC) syndrome
Renal cell ca
Acute Spinal Cord Compression
Need lab test for true diagnosis
Electrolyte imbalances often due to dehydration or disease progression
Thrombocytopenia is common among oncology pt
Vague malaise/ weakness
Can have coma or seizure
Decrease platelet count due to bone marrow suppression from chemo/radiation or disease (leukemia)
Avoid all NSAIDs
Spontaneous bleeds can occur
Pericardial effusion develops and compresses ventricle reducing cardiac output and collapsing the right atrium increasing venous back pressure
The side effects of chemotherapy severely interferes with cell division in particular the production and maintenance of blood products via the bone marrow
A systemic response to infection
Hypo perfusion with organ dysfunction or hypotension
Body's response to an overwhelming infection characterized by persistent hypotension
Uncontrolled growth of cancer cells