Lymphatic System Flashcards Preview

Module 2 > Lymphatic System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lymphatic System Deck (26):
1

Lymphatic vessels

Capillaries that begin peripherally and collect in venous system.

2

Pathogen

Virus, bacteria, fungus, parasite
* Responsible for disease in the human body

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Immunity

The body's ability to resist disease and infection through activation of specific defenses for these pathogens

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White blood cells

-Lymphocytes
-Basophils
-Eosinophils
-Monocytes

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Antigen

Pathogen , part of pathogen
Foreign compound

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Antibodies

Soluble proteins
Aka - immunoglobulins
Antibodies bond to antigens

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Functions of the lymphatic system

1) Production, maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes
2) Return of fluid and solutes from peripheral tissues
3) Distribution of hormones, water, and nutrients from peripheral tissues to the blood.

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Lymph

Fluid following through lymphatic vessels

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Natural killer cells

5-10% of lymphocytes
Non specific defense
-Immunological surveillance - attack foreign cells, cells infected, with virus, cancer cells, etc

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B cells

(Bone marrow derived)
10-15% of lymphocytes
-Differentiate into plasma cells
-Plasma cells secrete AB
-Antibody mediated immunity
-Cell mediated immunity
-Specific defense

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T cell

Thymus dependent cells
80% of lymphocytes
4 Types of lymphocytes
1)Cytotoxic T cells
2)Helper T cells
3)Suppressor T cell
4) Memory T cells

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Cytotoxic T cells

(Killer T cells)
-Attack foreign cells and body cells infected with virus

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Helper T cells

(Help in HIV)
-Stimulate T and B cells

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Suppressor T cells

-Inhibit T and B cells

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Memory T cells

-Remain in reserve for future contact with pathogen.

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Lymphoid Tissues

Lymphoid nodules
-Mass of lymphoid tissue not surrounded by a fibrous capsule
- Increase and decrease in size based on number of lymphocytes present
-Beneath epithelial - respiratory, digestive, and renal

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Lymphoid organs

-Surrounded by fibrous capsule
*Lymph nodes
*Thymus - in mediastinum posterior to sternum
-Tcell production and maturation
*Spleen - responsible for filtering the blood.
-Removes abnormal cells and components
-Stores iron from recycled RBCs

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Non specific defenses

Deny entry or limit the spread of pathogens (does not care which pathogen you are)

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1) Physical Barriers

*Skin - anchored by desmonsomes, hair prevents bugs from contacting the surface, secretions of sweat and oil, wash away pathogens
*Insides - mucous/cilia of respiratory tract, digestion of pathogens in stomach, flush pathogens with urine.

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2) Immunological Surveillance

Monitor for presence of antigens on cell membranes
*Perforins - makes holes in cell membrane of pathogen for water to come in, pathogen ruptures

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3) Interferons

Small protein released by activated lymphocytes , macrophages, and tissue cells infected with viruses.
*Will prevent virus replications and rate of spread in body tissues.
*Works by 2nd messenger

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4) Inflammation

Localized tissue response to injury causing local heat, redness, swelling pain
*Caused by stimulus that damages loose connective or kills cells

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Goals of inflammation

1) To perform temporary repair at injury site
2) Slow spread of pathogens from injury site
3) Mobilize resources for permanent repair (regeneration)

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5) Compliment system

11 compliment protein
-Cascade like clotting cascade
-Membrane attack (MAC) created in membrane > pores in bacterial (pathogen) membrane > cell lysis
-Activation = begins with compliment system attaching to antibody = attraction of phagocytes, phagocytosis, perfection of cell membranes

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6) Fever

Pyrogens reset thermostat in hypothalamus
-Increased body temp, new temp maintained by negative feedback. Once pathogens eliminated, set point returned to normal. Normal temp maintained by negative feedback.

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7) Phagocytes

-Remove cellular debris
- respond to invasion of pathogens
- two types (Macrophages and Microphages)
- 1st line of defense / exist in peripheral tissue
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