Flashcards in Renal System Deck (50):
Glomerular filtration rate
Amount of filtrate produced by kidneys each minute
Organs that produce urine
Pair of tubes that transfers urine to bladder
Muscular sac for temporary storage of urine
Conducts urine to exterior
Point of entry of renal artery/ point of exit of renal vein and ureter/ into/out of the kidney
Function of the kidney that involves removing organic waste from body fluids
Function of kidneys that involves discharge of waste products into the environment
Homeostatic regulation of kidneys
Function of kidneys that includes regulation of BP, blood volume, plasma concentrations of ions, stabilization of blood Ph, conservation of nutrients, detoxification.
Functional unit of the kidney
Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
PCT, Loop of Henle, DCT, collecting duct
Proximal convoluted tubule
Distal convoluted tubule
Cells of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle that contain chemoreceptors to monitor the NaCl content of tubular fluid entering the DCT
Enlarges smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole with secretory granules containing renin / also acts as mechanoreceptors to monitor BP of the afferent arteriole
Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I
Angiotensin converting enzyme
Effects of Angiotensin II
1) peripheral vasoconstriction
2) construction of efferent arteriole
3) release ADH
4) release of aldosterone
Hydrostatic pressure forces water across the filtration membrane in renal corpuscle (Passive)
Removal of water, ions, nutrients from filtrate back into circulation via peritubular capillaries
(Passive or active)
Transport of solutes out of peritubular capillaries and into filtrate (passive or active)
Extraglomerular mesangial cells
Pass regulatory signals between macula dense and granular cells
Metabolic waste products filtered by kidneys
Urea, Uric acid, creatinine
Glomerular filtration rate
Dilation of afferent
Constriction of the efferent
Major Decrease in BP MAP
Sympathetic activation results in Constriction of the afferent arteriole.
Trying to perfuse the core
Minor variation increased BP
Constriction of afferent
dilation of efferent
Number of soultes dissolved in water
3 basic functions of the renal system
Where are the kidneys located in the body? Why are they at risk for injury?
Retro perineal, behind the peritoneal cavity
How much blood flow reaches the kidneys?
20-25% of blood flow goes to the kidneys. Fed with about (1200mL of blood per minute)
The inner layer of the kidney.
The medulla is organized into renal pyramids
The outermost layer of the kidneys
Receives urine from from renal pyramid and feeds urine to ureters
Basic functional unit of the kidney
*responsible for filtering the blood, eliminating waste products and other things. Making sure nutrients, water, and ions don't actually get eliminated from the body.
Components of the nephron
Loop of Henle
The 3 types of waste products eliminated by kidneys are
Urea -from breakdown of amino acids
Uric Acid - breakdown in recycling RNA
Creatinine - breakdown of creatinine phosphate
What type of capillary is present in glomerulus?
Fenestrated capillary - has pore in them on purpose because they want stuff to come out.
What happens to the capillaries of the glomerulus with long-term diabetes?
It can lead to diabetes nephronpathy , leads to a progressive increase in proteinuria, decline in GFR, hypertension, and a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality
Renal tubule segments
Loop of Henle
Ascending thin limb
Ascending think limb
What are segments of blood flow in the kidneys?
Renal artery > afferent arteriole > glomerulus (fenestrated capillary)> efferent arteriole > peri tubular capillary
Con current multiplications (Positive freed back)
1) Water reabsorption in descending limb
2) Increased solute concentration in ascending and increased solute gradient in ECF
3) Increased NaCl reabsorption in ascending limb
4) Increased water gradient to ECF in descending
5)From thick limb, tubular fluid moves to DCT
1) NaCl reabsorption inhibited in ascending thick limb
2) Decreased NaCl reabsorption equals decreased water reabsorption which leads to increased water excretion
3)increased water excretion equals decreased total body water (blood vessels) which equals decreased hydrostatic pressure in systemic vasculature
4) body : osmotic pressure , hydrostatic pressure, h2o flows into vessels which leads to decreased edema.
A hormone released by certain cells of the heart atrial that reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium and water retentionp
Inhibits diuresis , or urine output
Mechanism of ADH
Makes the principal cells of the collect duct more permeable to water by causing aquaporins to be inserted to the apical membrane.
Mechanism for aldosterone
1) Release of Aldosterone triggered by ACTH (increased K+ plasma, and Angiotension 11)
2) Aldosterone diffuses into renal epithalamion cell of DCT/CD
3) increased Na+ and K+ channels in apical surface, and and more basolateral Na+, K+ ATPases
*As a result, little or no Na+ leaves the body in urine*