Renal System Flashcards Preview

Module 2 > Renal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal System Deck (50):
1

Glomerular filtration rate

Amount of filtrate produced by kidneys each minute

2

Kidneys

Organs that produce urine

3

Ureters

Pair of tubes that transfers urine to bladder

4

Urinary bladder

Muscular sac for temporary storage of urine

5

Urethra

Conducts urine to exterior

6

Hilum

Point of entry of renal artery/ point of exit of renal vein and ureter/ into/out of the kidney

7

Excretion

Function of the kidney that involves removing organic waste from body fluids

8

Elimination

Function of kidneys that involves discharge of waste products into the environment

9

Homeostatic regulation of kidneys

Function of kidneys that includes regulation of BP, blood volume, plasma concentrations of ions, stabilization of blood Ph, conservation of nutrients, detoxification.

10

Nephron

Functional unit of the kidney

11

Renal corpuscle

Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

12

Renal Tubule

PCT, Loop of Henle, DCT, collecting duct

13

PCT

Proximal convoluted tubule

14

DCT

Distal convoluted tubule

15

Mascula densa

Cells of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle that contain chemoreceptors to monitor the NaCl content of tubular fluid entering the DCT

16

Granular cells

Enlarges smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole with secretory granules containing renin / also acts as mechanoreceptors to monitor BP of the afferent arteriole

17

Renin

Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I

18

ACE

Angiotensin converting enzyme

19

Effects of Angiotensin II

1) peripheral vasoconstriction
2) construction of efferent arteriole
3) release ADH
4) release of aldosterone

20

Filtration

Hydrostatic pressure forces water across the filtration membrane in renal corpuscle (Passive)

21

Reabsorption

Removal of water, ions, nutrients from filtrate back into circulation via peritubular capillaries
(Passive or active)

22

Secretion

Transport of solutes out of peritubular capillaries and into filtrate (passive or active)

23

Extraglomerular mesangial cells

Pass regulatory signals between macula dense and granular cells

24

Metabolic waste products filtered by kidneys

Urea, Uric acid, creatinine

25

Micturition

Urination

26

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

27

Local regulation
Decreased BP

Dilation of afferent
Constriction of the efferent

28

Major Decrease in BP MAP

Sympathetic activation results in Constriction of the afferent arteriole.
Trying to perfuse the core

29

Minor variation increased BP

Constriction of afferent
dilation of efferent
Maintains GFR

30

Osmolarity

Number of soultes dissolved in water

31

3 basic functions of the renal system

Excretion
Elimination
Homeostatic Regulation

32

Where are the kidneys located in the body? Why are they at risk for injury?

Retro perineal, behind the peritoneal cavity

33

How much blood flow reaches the kidneys?

20-25% of blood flow goes to the kidneys. Fed with about (1200mL of blood per minute)

34

Renal medulla

The inner layer of the kidney.
The medulla is organized into renal pyramids

35

Renal Cortex

The outermost layer of the kidneys

36

Renal Pelvis

"Catch basin"
Receives urine from from renal pyramid and feeds urine to ureters

37

Nephron

Basic functional unit of the kidney
*responsible for filtering the blood, eliminating waste products and other things. Making sure nutrients, water, and ions don't actually get eliminated from the body.

38

Components of the nephron

Bowman's capsule
PCT
Loop of Henle
DCT
Collection duct

39

The 3 types of waste products eliminated by kidneys are

Urea -from breakdown of amino acids
Uric Acid - breakdown in recycling RNA
Creatinine - breakdown of creatinine phosphate

40

What type of capillary is present in glomerulus?

Fenestrated capillary - has pore in them on purpose because they want stuff to come out.

41

What happens to the capillaries of the glomerulus with long-term diabetes?

It can lead to diabetes nephronpathy , leads to a progressive increase in proteinuria, decline in GFR, hypertension, and a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

42

Renal tubule segments

PCT
Loop of Henle
Descending limb
Ascending thin limb
Ascending think limb
DCT
Collecting duct

43

What are segments of blood flow in the kidneys?

Renal artery > afferent arteriole > glomerulus (fenestrated capillary)> efferent arteriole > peri tubular capillary

44

Con current multiplications (Positive freed back)

1) Water reabsorption in descending limb
2) Increased solute concentration in ascending and increased solute gradient in ECF
3) Increased NaCl reabsorption in ascending limb
4) Increased water gradient to ECF in descending
5)From thick limb, tubular fluid moves to DCT
6) As

45

Lasix mechansim

1) NaCl reabsorption inhibited in ascending thick limb
2) Decreased NaCl reabsorption equals decreased water reabsorption which leads to increased water excretion
3)increased water excretion equals decreased total body water (blood vessels) which equals decreased hydrostatic pressure in systemic vasculature
4) body : osmotic pressure , hydrostatic pressure, h2o flows into vessels which leads to decreased edema.

46

ANP

A hormone released by certain cells of the heart atrial that reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium and water retentionp

47

ADH

Inhibits diuresis , or urine output

48

Mechanism of ADH

Makes the principal cells of the collect duct more permeable to water by causing aquaporins to be inserted to the apical membrane.

49

Mechanism for aldosterone

1) Release of Aldosterone triggered by ACTH (increased K+ plasma, and Angiotension 11)
2) Aldosterone diffuses into renal epithalamion cell of DCT/CD
3) increased Na+ and K+ channels in apical surface, and and more basolateral Na+, K+ ATPases

*As a result, little or no Na+ leaves the body in urine*

50

Micurition Reflex

1) 200ml > sensory neurons send message to parasympathetic preganglionic fiber
2) Message relayed to brain > conscious awareness of urge > urinate
3)Post ganglionic parasympathetic > deturssor muscle contraction
4) Urination = If relaxation or external urethral sphincter

*If no relaxation, bladder will relax. Process recycles in 1hr