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Flashcards in GI Deck (72):
0

Excessive alcohol consumption, excessive smoking, increased stress, ingestion of caustic substances, and poor bowel habits are ?

Risk factors for GI complications

1

What are the three classifications of abdominal pain?

Visceral
Somatic
Referred

2

Originates in walls of hollow organs( gallbladder or appendix), in capsules of solid organs (kidney or liver) , or in visceral peritoneum is?

Visceral pain

3

Mechanisms that produce pain?

Inflammation and distinction ischemia

4

Vague or poorly localized, dull, or crampy pain is ?

Visceral pain

5

Sharp pain that travels along definite neural routes to spinal column is ?

Somatic pain

6

Pain localized to reigon area. Bacterial and chemical irritations of abdomen is from?

Somatic pain

7

Originates in reigon other than where it is felt is?

Referred pain

8

Dissecting triple A produces what pain between the shoulder blades?

Referred pain

9

Sudden onset of GI pain is usually cause by?

Perforations of abdominal organs or capsules

10

Gradual onset of GI pain is associated with ?

Blockage of hollow organs

11

If pain lessens when patient draws legs up to cheat or lies on side it usually indicates?

Peritoneal inflammation

12

If walking relieves GI pain the cause can be?

GI or urinary system

13

Localized tearing pain is associated with?

Rupture of organ

14

Dull, steadily increasing GI pain may indicate ?

Bowel obstruction

15

Sharp pain, particularly in flank, may indicate?

Kidney stone

16

Any abdominal pain lasting over 6 hours consider

Surgical emergency

17

Changes in bowel morphology, color, or smell can be only indication of?

Lower GI hemorrhage, gastritis, bleeding diverticula

18

Pain in the lowest part of abdomen can be due to problems in?

Reproductive System

19

Gastroesopangeal reflux, gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers, and gall bladder disease are GI emergencies that cause?

Chest pain

20

Distention of abdomen , free air build up can be ?

Obstruction of bowel or hemorrhage

21

Peri umbilical ecchymosis is?

Cullen's sign

22

Ecchymosis in flank?

Grey Turner's sign

23

One long tube divided into structurally and functionally different parts is ?

GI tract

24

Liver, gallbladder, pancreas, vermiform appendix are what?

GI organs

25

Peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, variceal rupture, Malloy-Weiss tear (espongeal laceration), esophagitis, duodenitis are the 6 major causes of ?

Upper GI hemorrhage

26

Hematemesis (bloody vomitus) is a sign of?

Upper GI bleed

27

Melena is a sign of

Upper GI bleed that reaches lower GI tract

28

Hypotension in a GI bleed suggests?

Decreased circulating volume

29

Increased in portal pressure (portal hypertension) , consumption of alcohol, and ingestion of caustic substances can cause?

Esophageal Varices

30

Alcoholic liver cirrhosis accounts for two thirds of ?

Esophageal Varices cases

31

Octreotide is?

The drug of choice for acute variceal bleeding

32

Inflammation of stomach and intestines associated with sudden onset of vomiting and/or diarrhea is ?

Acute Gastroenteritis

33

Stress, chemotheraputic agents, ingestion of acidic or alkalotic agent, and infection are other causes of ?

Acute gastroenteritis

34

Inflammation of GI mucosa marked by long term mucosal changes or permanent mucosal damage is ?

Chronic Gastrenteritis

35

Transmitted via fecal- oral route or through infected food or water. Due to primarily microbial infection is?

Chronic gastroenteritis

36

Erosions caused by gastric acid; occur anywhere in GI tract. Occur more in males more than females.

Peptic ulcer

37

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (asprin, ibuprofen, naproxen) , acid-stimulating products(alcohol,nicotine), or helicobacter pylori bacteria are causes of?

Peptic ulcers

38

N+V, massive hemorrhage , il appearance, and hemodynamic instability are signs of

Peptic ulcer

39

Jejunum, ileum of small intestine, and entire of large intestine, rectum, and anus are part of ?

Lower GI tract

40

Nutrients absorbed into blood occurs where?

Small intestine

41

Water absorbed and solid wastes form in ?

Large intestine

42

Diverticulosis, colon lesions, rectal lesions, anal fissures, and inflammatory bowel disorders (ulcerative colitis and chrons disease) are causes of?

Lower GI bleeding

43

Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disorder of unknown origin is

Ulcerative colitis

44

Presence in intestine of diverticula, small outpouchings of mucosal and submucosal tissue that push through the outermost layer of intestine, the muscle is

Diverticulosis

45

Inflammation of diverticula secondary to infection. Lower left sided pain, fever, increasing white blood cell count , N+V, tenderness on palpation is

Diverticulitis

46

Hernias, intussesception, volvulus, and adhesions are the most frequent?

Bowel obstructions

47

Foreign bodies, gallstones, tumors, adhesions from abdominal surgery, bowel infarction are the common cause of ?

Bowel obstruction

48

The small intestine is the most common location for ?

Bowel obstruction

49

1 to 2 inches above anterior iliac crest along direct line from anterior crest to umbilicus is?

McBurney's Point

50

Inflammation of gallbladder

Cholecystitis

51

Diffuse right sided tenderness or point tenderness under right costal margin reveals?

Murphys sign

52

Metabolic causes , specifically alcoholism account for 80% of

Pancreatitis

53

Metabolic
Mechanical
Vascular
Infectious
Cause?

Pancreatitis

54

Acinar tissue destruction due to chronic alcohol intake, drug toxicity, ischemia, infectious diseases cause?

Chronic pancreatitis

55

Any injury to hepatocytes (liver cells) associated with inflammation or infection is ?

Hepatitis

56

Crowded and unsanitary living conditions, pot hygiene that invites oral fecal transmission, exposure to blood borne pathogens , and chronic alcohol intake are risk factors for?

Hepatitis

57

Infectious hepatitis is?

Hep A

58

"Serum Hepatitis" transited as blood borne pathogen is?

Hep B

59

Pathogen commonly responsible for spreading hepatitis through blood transfusions; chronic and often debilitating damage to liver is ?

Hep C

60

Less common; pathogen dormant until activated by HBV

Hep D

61

Waterborne infection

Hep e

62

Peptic Ulcer Disorder signs and symptoms

Infection with H pylori, chronic use of NSAIDS, alcohol and smoking.
Burning or gnawing pain in the stomach that subsides or diminishes immediately after eating.
The pain is usual felt in the upper abdomen or below sternum.
Some pts the pain occurs immediately after eating. Nausea, vomiting, belching, and heartburn.
If the erosion is severe, bleeding can occur causing hematemesis and melena.

63

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of gallbladder

64

Cholecystitis signs and symptoms

Constant, sever pain in the right upper or mid abdominal region and may refer to the right upper back, shoulder area, or flank.
The pain may steadily increase for hours or may come and go.
30 min after a fatty meal and usually at night.
N+V, indigestion, bloating, gas, and belching.

65

Pancreatitis signs and symptoms

Caused by obstructing gallstone, alcohol abuse, and other diseases.
Severe pain in the upper right and left quadrants and may radiate to the back.
N+V, abdominal distention, and tenderness
Sepsis or hemorrhage can occur, may cause fever or tachycardia

66

Appendicitis signs and symptoms

Initially, pain is generalized, dull, and diffuse as may center in the umbilical area.
The pain later localizes to the right lower quadrant of the abdomen.
Referred pain : N and V, anorexia, fever, and chills.
Classic sign is rebound tenderness

67

Common upper GI bleeding

Esophagitis, esophageal Varices

68

Common Lower GI bleeding

Bowel inflammation, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids

69

Esophagitis signs and symptoms

Pain with swallowing , feels like something is stuck in there throat
Heartburn, Nausea, Vomiting, and sores in the mouth.
In the worst cases, bleeding can occur from the the small capillary vessels within the esophagus

70

Formation of gall stones

Cholelithiasis

71

4 categories of pancreatitis

Metabolic (alcoholism, 80% of cases)
Mechanical (gallstones or elevated serum lipids)
Vascular (thromboembolisms or shock)
Infectious