Flashcards in Infectious Disease And Sepsis Deck (68):
Illness caused by infestation of body by biological organisms
Most infectious disease states are ?
Not life threatening
Health professionals who study how infectious diseases affect populations?
Characteristics of a certain population
Who monitors infectious disease?
Health department or Board of health
Disease causing organism microscopic are?
Nonharmful bacteria that cause disease only under unusual circumstances
Most opportunistic pathogens are ?
Microscopic single cells organism ; 1 to 20 micrometers; prokaryotes. Reproduce independently ; require host to supple food and environment is ?
Releasing toxic chemicals that have localized or systemic effects is?
Poisonous proteins shed by bacteria during bacterial growth is
Proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids; released when bacteria cells are destroyed is ?
Much smaller than bacteria, cannot reproduce and carry on metabolism by themselves, obligate intracellular parasites, grow and reproduce only within host cell, resist antibiotic treatment
Disease producing agents referred as "slow viruses".
Cause progressive untreatable dementia kuru
Mad cow disease
Fatal familial insomnia
Plantlike microorganism, most not pathogenic
Yeasts, molds, mushrooms
Become pathogenic in patients with compromised immune function
Single celled parasitic organism with flexible membranes and ability to move.
Most live in soil
Opportunistic pathogens in patients with compromised immune function
Enter body by fecal-oral route or through mosquito
Common cause of disease where sanitation is poor
Live in intestinal mucosa, may reach 30-50 cm in length.
Common in US and civilized countries
(3-10mm long) live in distal colon
Common cause of anal prutitus (itching) and infection
Found in warm, moist climates
Larvae passed in stool of infected animals, contracted when barefoot person walks in contaminated area
Cause epi gastric and anemia
Contracted by eating raw or inadequately cooked pork products
GI disturbances, edema, fever
If invades heart, lungs, brain in large numbers, death may result
Transmitted via food products, water, and soil
Blood borne disease transmitted by contact with blood or body fluids of infected person
HIV, Hep B, C, D; syphilis
Infectious disease transmitted through air on droplets expelled during productive cough or sneeze
TB, meningitis, mumps, measles, rubella, chicken pox(varicella).
Transmitted by airborne route
Common cold, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, transmitted by airborne route.
Open wounds, increased secretions , active coughing, ongoing invasive treatment cause?
Increase of disease transmission
Once infected with infectious agent, host cannot transmit agent to someone else
Host may exhibit signs of clinical disease; can transmit infectious agent to another host
Time between exposure and presentation
Time between exposure to disease and seroconversion
Duration from onset of signs and symptoms until resolution
Attack infectious agent by combination of digestive enzymes and ingesting it (phagocytosis)
Neutrophils and macrophages
Various T lymphocytes react against specific antigens via
Protect against most infectious agents to which body repeatedly exposed
Humoral immunity antibodies
Remembers antigen and recognizes repeated invasions
Formed early on most immune responses
Main immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions
Present on surface of B lymphocytes; acts as antigen receptor
Attaches to mast cells in respiratory and intestinal tracts
Set of small, thin-walled vessels; collects overflow fluid from tissue spaces and returns it to circulatory system
Spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, lymphatic ducts
Filter lymph before returning it to circulatory system.
Generates antibodies and produces B and T lymphocytes; removes unwanted particulate matter.
Recieved antibodies from maternal circulation via placenta or from inoculation
Develops antibodies in response to inoculation by killed or modified form of infectious agent in attenuated vaccine
Pregnant health care workers have additional concerns to
Chicken pox/ shingles
Outlined rights and responsibilities of agencies and health care workers when infectious disease exposure occurs
The Ryan white act
Transplant recipients ; diabetes
IV drug abuse; splenectomy
Can occur in ?
Patients taking immunosuppressants medications or that have HIV
Hypotension with infectious disease may result from?
Selling of liver
Utilizes host cell's reproductive apparatus to copy itself
Action of reverse transcriptase enables genetic material from retrovirus to become permanently incorporated into DNA of infected cell.
Most common preventable adult infectious disease in the world
Cause: bacteria known collectively as Myobacterium tuberculosis complex
Affects respiratory system
Transmission : airborne respiratory droplets, through mucos membranes and broken skin, drinking contaminated milk
Acute lung inflammation ; result from respiratory infection by viruses, bacteria, fungi.
Spread by droplet nuclei, direct contact, linens soiled with respiratory secretions.
Lower respiratory infection
Inflammation of meninges and CSF caused by bacterial and viral infection.
Transmitted by respiratory droplets, peaks in winter months with low temperature and humidity.
Flexion of hips or knees when neck flexed considered positive finding of ?
Meningitis (brudzinski sign)
Inability to fully extend knee due to meninges like irritation is
Caused by viruses types A, B, C
Leading cause of respiratory disease world wide
More serious in very young and old
Sudden onset of fever, chills, malaise, muscle aches, nasal discharge, cough.
Caused by rhinovirus we
Course mild, often without fever and muscle cramping
Transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with saliva
Painful enlargement of salivary glands
Cause bronchiolitis in infants and young children...can be fatal
Associated with outbreaks of lower respiratory infections
Wheezing, tachypnea, respiratory distress
Respiratory syncytial virus
Caused by bacterium
Develops mild cough ; quickly becomes sever and violent
Rapid consecutive coughs followed by deep, high - pitched inspiration
Large amounts of thick mucus, sustained coughing may lead to increased intracranial pressure and intracerebral hemorrhage
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Inflammation of epiglottis
Four "D's" dysphonia, drooling, dysphagia, distress
Cause of upper airway obstruction in children under 3
Viral illness; inspiratory and expiratory strider; seal bark cough
Croup ( laryngotracheobronchitis)
Acute bacterial infection of CNS
Musculoskeletal signs and symptoms
Pain and stiffness in jaw muscles , muscle spasms, and rigidity of entire body.
The most common STI
50% of the time there are no symptoms
In men can cause groin pain and swelling penile discharge as well as burning on urination
Can also effect the eyes and respiratory system
Easily cured with antibiotics
The most common infection of the urethra and cervix
Highest rates in men 20-24 followed by men 15-19
In women, cervicitis without symptoms or minimal discharge ages 15-19
If untreated increased risk of sterility, ectopic pregnancy, abcesses within reproductive structures, and peritonitis.