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Flashcards in Infectious Disease And Sepsis Deck (68):
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Illness caused by infestation of body by biological organisms
Bacteria
Viruses
Fungi
Protozoans
Helminths

Infectious diseases

1

Most infectious disease states are ?

Not life threatening

2

Health professionals who study how infectious diseases affect populations?

Epidemiologists

3

Characteristics of a certain population

Demographics

4

Who monitors infectious disease?

Health department or Board of health

5

Disease causing organism microscopic are?

Microorganisms

6

Nonharmful bacteria that cause disease only under unusual circumstances

Opportunistic pathogens

7

Most opportunistic pathogens are ?

Normal flora

8

Microscopic single cells organism ; 1 to 20 micrometers; prokaryotes. Reproduce independently ; require host to supple food and environment is ?

Bacteria

9

Releasing toxic chemicals that have localized or systemic effects is?

Indirect damage

10

Poisonous proteins shed by bacteria during bacterial growth is

Exotoxins

11

Proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids; released when bacteria cells are destroyed is ?

Endotoxins

12

Much smaller than bacteria, cannot reproduce and carry on metabolism by themselves, obligate intracellular parasites, grow and reproduce only within host cell, resist antibiotic treatment

Viruses

13

Disease producing agents referred as "slow viruses".
Cause progressive untreatable dementia kuru
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Mad cow disease
Fatal familial insomnia
Is?

Prions

14

Plantlike microorganism, most not pathogenic
Yeasts, molds, mushrooms
Become pathogenic in patients with compromised immune function

Fungi

15

Single celled parasitic organism with flexible membranes and ability to move.
Most live in soil
Opportunistic pathogens in patients with compromised immune function
Enter body by fecal-oral route or through mosquito

Protozoa

16

Common cause of disease where sanitation is poor

Parasites

17

Live in intestinal mucosa, may reach 30-50 cm in length.

Roundworms

18

Common in US and civilized countries

Pinworms

19

(3-10mm long) live in distal colon
Common cause of anal prutitus (itching) and infection

Tiny worms

20

Found in warm, moist climates
Larvae passed in stool of infected animals, contracted when barefoot person walks in contaminated area
Cause epi gastric and anemia

Hookworms

21

Contracted by eating raw or inadequately cooked pork products
GI disturbances, edema, fever
If invades heart, lungs, brain in large numbers, death may result

Trichinosis

22

Transmitted via food products, water, and soil

Microorganisms

23

Blood borne disease transmitted by contact with blood or body fluids of infected person

HIV, Hep B, C, D; syphilis

24

Infectious disease transmitted through air on droplets expelled during productive cough or sneeze

TB, meningitis, mumps, measles, rubella, chicken pox(varicella).

25

Transmitted by airborne route

Common cold, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, transmitted by airborne route.

26

Open wounds, increased secretions , active coughing, ongoing invasive treatment cause?

Increase of disease transmission

27

Once infected with infectious agent, host cannot transmit agent to someone else

Latent period

28

Host may exhibit signs of clinical disease; can transmit infectious agent to another host

Communicable period

29

Time between exposure and presentation

Incubation period

30

Time between exposure to disease and seroconversion

Window phase

31

Duration from onset of signs and symptoms until resolution

Disease period

32

Attack infectious agent by combination of digestive enzymes and ingesting it (phagocytosis)

Neutrophils and macrophages

33

Various T lymphocytes react against specific antigens via

Cell-mediated immunity

34

Protect against most infectious agents to which body repeatedly exposed

Humoral immunity antibodies

35

Remembers antigen and recognizes repeated invasions

IgG

36

Formed early on most immune responses

IgM

37

Main immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions

IgA

38

Present on surface of B lymphocytes; acts as antigen receptor

IgD

39

Attaches to mast cells in respiratory and intestinal tracts

IgE

40

Set of small, thin-walled vessels; collects overflow fluid from tissue spaces and returns it to circulatory system

Lymphatic system

41

Spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, lymphatic ducts

Lymphatic organs

42

Filter lymph before returning it to circulatory system.

Lymph nodes

43

Generates antibodies and produces B and T lymphocytes; removes unwanted particulate matter.

Spleen

44

Recieved antibodies from maternal circulation via placenta or from inoculation

Passive immunity

45

Develops antibodies in response to inoculation by killed or modified form of infectious agent in attenuated vaccine

Active immunity

46

Pregnant health care workers have additional concerns to

Parvovirus
Influenza
Chicken pox/ shingles

47

Outlined rights and responsibilities of agencies and health care workers when infectious disease exposure occurs

The Ryan white act

48

COPD
Autoimmune disease/meds
Transplant recipients ; diabetes
Alcoholism; malnutrition
IV drug abuse; splenectomy
Cancer
Can occur in ?

Patients taking immunosuppressants medications or that have HIV

49

Hypotension with infectious disease may result from?

Dehydration
Vasodilation

50

Hepatomegaly

Selling of liver

51

Utilizes host cell's reproductive apparatus to copy itself
Retrovirus
Action of reverse transcriptase enables genetic material from retrovirus to become permanently incorporated into DNA of infected cell.

HIV

52

Most common preventable adult infectious disease in the world
Cause: bacteria known collectively as Myobacterium tuberculosis complex
Affects respiratory system
Transmission : airborne respiratory droplets, through mucos membranes and broken skin, drinking contaminated milk

TB

53

Acute lung inflammation ; result from respiratory infection by viruses, bacteria, fungi.
Spread by droplet nuclei, direct contact, linens soiled with respiratory secretions.
Lower respiratory infection

Pneumonia

54

Inflammation of meninges and CSF caused by bacterial and viral infection.
Transmitted by respiratory droplets, peaks in winter months with low temperature and humidity.

Meningitis

55

Flexion of hips or knees when neck flexed considered positive finding of ?

Meningitis (brudzinski sign)

56

Inability to fully extend knee due to meninges like irritation is

Kernig's sign

57

Caused by viruses types A, B, C
Leading cause of respiratory disease world wide
More serious in very young and old
Sudden onset of fever, chills, malaise, muscle aches, nasal discharge, cough.

Influenza

58

Caused by rhinovirus we
Course mild, often without fever and muscle cramping

Common cold

59

Transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with saliva
Painful enlargement of salivary glands

Mumps

60

Cause bronchiolitis in infants and young children...can be fatal
Associated with outbreaks of lower respiratory infections
Wheezing, tachypnea, respiratory distress

RSV
Respiratory syncytial virus

61

Caused by bacterium
Develops mild cough ; quickly becomes sever and violent
Rapid consecutive coughs followed by deep, high - pitched inspiration
Large amounts of thick mucus, sustained coughing may lead to increased intracranial pressure and intracerebral hemorrhage

Pertussis (whooping cough)

62

Inflammation of epiglottis
Four "D's" dysphonia, drooling, dysphagia, distress

Epiglotitis

63

Cause of upper airway obstruction in children under 3
Viral illness; inspiratory and expiratory strider; seal bark cough

Croup ( laryngotracheobronchitis)

64

Acute bacterial infection of CNS
Musculoskeletal signs and symptoms
Pain and stiffness in jaw muscles , muscle spasms, and rigidity of entire body.

Tetanus

65

The most common STI
50% of the time there are no symptoms
In men can cause groin pain and swelling penile discharge as well as burning on urination
Can also effect the eyes and respiratory system
Easily cured with antibiotics

Chlamydia

66

The most common infection of the urethra and cervix
Antibiotics cure
Highest rates in men 20-24 followed by men 15-19
In women, cervicitis without symptoms or minimal discharge ages 15-19
If untreated increased risk of sterility, ectopic pregnancy, abcesses within reproductive structures, and peritonitis.

Gonorrhea

67

Most common cause of death in debilitated patients in hospital ICU
Life threatening medical condition caused by whole body inflammatory state called systemic response syndrome
HR greater than 90
Abnormal body temp
Tachypnea
Abnormal white blood cell count

Sepsis