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Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (51):
0

Serious poisoning a, especially in children older than 5 may be intentional by

Parents or caretakers

1

Ingestion
Inhalation
Surface absorption
Injection

Routes of toxic exposure

2

Accidental poisonings caused by exposure to chemicals and toxins occur?

Farm or industrial workplace

3

Most common route of entry for toxic exposure?

Ingestion

4

Cleaning agents
Cosmetics
Drugs
Food and house hold products
Petroleum based products
Plants

Toxic substance abused via ingestion

5

Rapid absorption of toxic agent through alveolar-capillary membrane in lungs
Can irritate pulmonary passages, causing extensive edema and destroying tissue
Causative agents can appear as gases, vapors, fumes, aerosols

Inhalation

6

Ammonia
CO
Carbon Tetracholride
Chlorine
Cyanide
Freon
Methyl chloride

Inhalation toxins

7

Entry of toxic substances through skin or mucous membranes
Contact with poisonous plants such as poison ivy, poison sumac, poison oak

Surface absorption

8

Used as pesticides easily absorbed through dermal contact

Organophosphates

9

Toxic agent under the skin,!into muscle, or into blood vessels

Injection

10

Most poisonings results from bites and stings of ?

Insects and animals

11

Insects that sting and bite (honeybees, Hornets , yellow jackets, wasps, fire ants) belong to class?

Hymenoptera

12

Minimizing toxicity by reducing amount of toxins absorbed into body

Decontamination

13

Substance that will neutralize specific toxins or counteract its effect on body; there are not many.

Antidote

14

Type of toxin ingested
Quanity of toxin
Time elapses since ingestion
Whether or took any alcohol or potentiating substance
Drug habitation or abuse; underlying medical or ill lines and allergies.

Questions to ask during ingested toxin call

15

Poisoning is a situation where ____ may be required

RSI

16

Paint, freon, propellants, glue. Amyl nitrate, butyl nitrate. Nitrous oxide

Commonly abused inhaled toxins

17

Patients who inhale paint or propellants are referred as

Huffers

18

Oxygen is displaced from respiratory system producing hypoxia when ?

Toxins are inhaled

19

Leading cause of of poisoning in industrialized countries.
Oderless, tasteless gas, often by product of incomplete combustion of carbon containing compounds
Extremely stable molecule

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

20

Most death from CO are from ?

Ventricular fibrillation

21

Limits O2 transport
Inhibits O2 transfer
Causes tissue inflammation
Causes reduced cardiac function
Increases activation of nitric oxide
Causes vasodilation
Induces free radical formation

CO pathophysiologic effects

22

Extremes of age, very young and elderly
Persons with heart disease
Pregnant women
Patients with decreased oxygen carrying capacity and/or chronic respiratory disease

Persons at risk for CO

23

Colorless gas; faint, bitter almond smell
Extremley toxic

Cyanide

24

Ingestion of cyanide powder common with?

Suicide and homicide

25

Present in commercial and household items; ingested or absorbed
can be inhaled; especially in fires
Extremely fast acting toxin

Cyanide

26

Sodium nitrate avoided in combination CO/cyanide poisonings where SpCO greater than ?

10%

27

Second antidote for cyanide poisonings is ?

Hydroxocobalamin
Cyanokit

28

Acid or base found in home and industrial workplace are

Caustic Substances

29

Produce severe burns at site of contact
If ingested, tissue destruction at lips, mouth, esophagus, areas of GI tract.

Strong Caustic

30

Extremely toxic; can be lethal despite moderate burns on skin contact.
Penetrates deeply into tissue; in activated only when it comes in contact with cations such as calcium.
Removal of calcium from cells causes total disruption of cell functioning.

Hydrofluoric Acid

31

Once commonly used for depression
Marrow therapeutic index : small increase in dose can quickly lead to toxic effects
May be responsible for more deaths due to intentional OD than any other medication.

Tricyclic Antidepressant

32

Arrhythmias most common cause of death in

TCA

33

Inhibitors used to treat depression and obsessive compulsive disorders.
Serious interactions with foods containing tyramine high morbidity and mortality when overdose
Inhibits breakdown of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine

MAOI
monoamine oxidase inhibitors

34

In treatment of bipolar disorder no other drug is more effective

Lithium

35

Activated charcoal reduce this drug absorption and should be used.
Find out time of ingestion
Severe cases may require dialysis

Salicylates
(Asprin)

36

Used to treat fever and or pain ingredients in hundreds of over-the-counter preparations
In large doses can be very dangerous
Dose of 150 mg per kilogram considered toxic may result in death due to injury to the liver
Antidote : N-acetycyseine (NAC, Muccomyst) highly effective but really given in the prehospital setting

Acetaminophen

37

Body requires only small amounts on daily basis to maintain store for enzyme and hemoglobin production.
Excess amounts of obtained from nonprescription supplements and multivitamins
Overdose causes gastrointestinal injury and possible shock from hemorrhage

Iron

38

Which black widow delivers a bite

Females

39

All scorpion sting but only one can cause fatalities which one is it

Bark scorpion

40

Forced diuresis and alkalization of urine improve elimination of barbiturates from the body

Barbiturates

41

Date rape drug

Rohypnol (flunitrazepam)

42

Causes visual disturbances, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.

Methanol

43

Ingestion of methanol or ethylene glycol can cause?

Blindness or death

44

Decreased level of consciousness during which patient hallucinates and misinterprets nearby events.

DTs

45

Seizure from abstinence may occur within first

24-36hrs

46

Pancreatitis
Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage
Hypoglycemia
Subdural Hematoma (due to falls)
Rib and extremity fracture (due to falls)

Consequences to alcohol

47

Reaction from abrupt discontinuation of ingestion after prolonged use or from Rapid fall in blood alcohol level after acute intoxication

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

48

Poisoning

Exposure to nonpharmalogical substances

49

Overdose

Exposure to pharmacological substances, whether accidental or intentional

50

The most common route of entry for toxic exposure

Ingestion