Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (51):
Serious poisoning a, especially in children older than 5 may be intentional by
Parents or caretakers
Routes of toxic exposure
Accidental poisonings caused by exposure to chemicals and toxins occur?
Farm or industrial workplace
Most common route of entry for toxic exposure?
Food and house hold products
Petroleum based products
Toxic substance abused via ingestion
Rapid absorption of toxic agent through alveolar-capillary membrane in lungs
Can irritate pulmonary passages, causing extensive edema and destroying tissue
Causative agents can appear as gases, vapors, fumes, aerosols
Entry of toxic substances through skin or mucous membranes
Contact with poisonous plants such as poison ivy, poison sumac, poison oak
Used as pesticides easily absorbed through dermal contact
Toxic agent under the skin,!into muscle, or into blood vessels
Most poisonings results from bites and stings of ?
Insects and animals
Insects that sting and bite (honeybees, Hornets , yellow jackets, wasps, fire ants) belong to class?
Minimizing toxicity by reducing amount of toxins absorbed into body
Substance that will neutralize specific toxins or counteract its effect on body; there are not many.
Type of toxin ingested
Quanity of toxin
Time elapses since ingestion
Whether or took any alcohol or potentiating substance
Drug habitation or abuse; underlying medical or ill lines and allergies.
Questions to ask during ingested toxin call
Poisoning is a situation where ____ may be required
Paint, freon, propellants, glue. Amyl nitrate, butyl nitrate. Nitrous oxide
Commonly abused inhaled toxins
Patients who inhale paint or propellants are referred as
Oxygen is displaced from respiratory system producing hypoxia when ?
Toxins are inhaled
Leading cause of of poisoning in industrialized countries.
Oderless, tasteless gas, often by product of incomplete combustion of carbon containing compounds
Extremely stable molecule
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Most death from CO are from ?
Limits O2 transport
Inhibits O2 transfer
Causes tissue inflammation
Causes reduced cardiac function
Increases activation of nitric oxide
Induces free radical formation
CO pathophysiologic effects
Extremes of age, very young and elderly
Persons with heart disease
Patients with decreased oxygen carrying capacity and/or chronic respiratory disease
Persons at risk for CO
Colorless gas; faint, bitter almond smell
Ingestion of cyanide powder common with?
Suicide and homicide
Present in commercial and household items; ingested or absorbed
can be inhaled; especially in fires
Extremely fast acting toxin
Sodium nitrate avoided in combination CO/cyanide poisonings where SpCO greater than ?
Second antidote for cyanide poisonings is ?
Acid or base found in home and industrial workplace are
Produce severe burns at site of contact
If ingested, tissue destruction at lips, mouth, esophagus, areas of GI tract.
Extremely toxic; can be lethal despite moderate burns on skin contact.
Penetrates deeply into tissue; in activated only when it comes in contact with cations such as calcium.
Removal of calcium from cells causes total disruption of cell functioning.
Once commonly used for depression
Marrow therapeutic index : small increase in dose can quickly lead to toxic effects
May be responsible for more deaths due to intentional OD than any other medication.
Arrhythmias most common cause of death in
Inhibitors used to treat depression and obsessive compulsive disorders.
Serious interactions with foods containing tyramine high morbidity and mortality when overdose
Inhibits breakdown of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine
monoamine oxidase inhibitors
In treatment of bipolar disorder no other drug is more effective
Activated charcoal reduce this drug absorption and should be used.
Find out time of ingestion
Severe cases may require dialysis
Used to treat fever and or pain ingredients in hundreds of over-the-counter preparations
In large doses can be very dangerous
Dose of 150 mg per kilogram considered toxic may result in death due to injury to the liver
Antidote : N-acetycyseine (NAC, Muccomyst) highly effective but really given in the prehospital setting
Body requires only small amounts on daily basis to maintain store for enzyme and hemoglobin production.
Excess amounts of obtained from nonprescription supplements and multivitamins
Overdose causes gastrointestinal injury and possible shock from hemorrhage
Which black widow delivers a bite
All scorpion sting but only one can cause fatalities which one is it
Forced diuresis and alkalization of urine improve elimination of barbiturates from the body
Date rape drug
Causes visual disturbances, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.
Ingestion of methanol or ethylene glycol can cause?
Blindness or death
Decreased level of consciousness during which patient hallucinates and misinterprets nearby events.
Seizure from abstinence may occur within first
Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage
Subdural Hematoma (due to falls)
Rib and extremity fracture (due to falls)
Consequences to alcohol
Reaction from abrupt discontinuation of ingestion after prolonged use or from Rapid fall in blood alcohol level after acute intoxication
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
Exposure to nonpharmalogical substances
Exposure to pharmacological substances, whether accidental or intentional