Hypertensive Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hypertensive Emergencies Deck (33):
1

What is a hypertensive crisis

DBP > 120 leading to vascular injury and organ damage

2

What is a hypertensive emergency

Severe HTN with damage to brain, CVS, kidneys

3

What is hypertensive urgency

Very high HTN w/o damage to organs

4

Causes of Hypertensive emergency

Essential HTN
Renal parenchymal or renovascular disease
Eclampsia
Pheochromocytoma
Drugs

5

How much should BP be reduced in first hour

25%

6

What can happen with abrupt BP reduction

MI
Stroke
Visual changes

7

DOC Hypertensive emergency

Sodium Nitroprusside

8

What are the drugs used in hypertensive crisis

Sodium Nitroprusside
Labetalol
Fenoldopam
Nicardipine
Nitroglycerine
Diazoxide
Phentolamine
Esmolol
Hydralazine

9

DOC pt with cardiac ischemia, angina or post cardiac bypass

Nitroglycerine

10

DOC pt with pheochromocytoma episode

Phentolamine

11

DOC pt with eclampsia

Hydralazine

12

Used for aortic dissection or post-op HTN

Esmolol

13

Does not cause reflex tachycardia

Labetalol

14

Safe in pts with renal insufficiency

Fenoldopam

15

Ca channel blocker

Nicardipine

16

What do you give with Sodium Nitroprusside

Beta blocker (for reflex tachycardia)

17

Why is Fenoldopam safe in renal insufficiency

Maintains renal perfusion as it lowers BP

18

Shortest to Longest half life

Sodium Nitroprusside
Nitroglycerin
Fenoldopam
Nicardipine
Labetalol
Diazoxide

19

Contraindications for Labetalol

COPD, Asthma
2nd or 3rd AV block
Bradycardia

20

Contraindication for Fenoldopam

Glaucoma

21

Can cause reflex tachycardia

Sodium Nitroprusside
Nicardipine
Diazoxide

22

Can cause Hypotension

Sodium Nitroprusside
Diazoxide

23

Can cause Cynide Toxicity

Sodium Nitroprusside

24

Treat CN toxicity in Sodium Nitroprusside

Sodium Thiosulfate

25

How is Sodium Nitroprusside administered

IV ONLY

26

Only causes arteriolar dilation

Fenoldopam
Diazoxide

27

Causes arteriolar and venous dilation

Nitroglycerin

28

May cause Na and water retention

Diazoxide

29

Causes vascular SM relaxation

Nicardipine

30

Promotes natriuresis

Fenoldopam

31

How does Diazoxide cause arteriolar dilation

Prevents vascular SM contraction by opening K channels

32

What can be used to treat hypoglycemia in insulinoma and how

Diazoxide inhibits insulin release

33

Action of Sodium Nitroprusside

Vasodilation and Venodilation