Lasers 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lasers 1 Deck (86):
1

Giving off different wavelength than absorbed

Fluorescence

2

1st dedicated Laser for dental application

Nd-Yag

3

LASER

Light

Amplification

Stimulated

Emission

Radiation

4

LED, no

heat

5

White light

Laser light

everywhere

coherent

6

Laser light is one

color

7

Monochromatic

collimated

coherent

laser

8

Quantum:

photon

9

photon stimulate atom to emit other photons

Einstein

10

lasers are one color, colliated, and coherent

True

11

Spontaneous emmision

Stimulated emission:

no coherency photon randomly released

induced

12

Spontaneous is random

True

13

A state in which a substance has been energized or excited to SPECIFIC energy levels

*more atoms/higher excited state

Population Inversion

14

Population inversion, aka...

pumping

15

Amplification associated with...

population inversion

16

Radiation: ionizing

non-ionizing

enough energy to break away from atom

excitation, not breaking away (lasers)

17

horizontal distance of measurement

wavelength

18

wavelength measurement

microns

19

height of wave, equivalent to energy

amplitude

20

Amplitude is equivalent to...

energy

21

For a particular laser the horizontal width will always be the same

True

22

shortest wavelengths, highest amplitude

gamma

23

Dental lasers operate where

Infrared

24

Gas or solid

active medium

*emits

25

Pumping

mirror

external energy

reflection

26

what gives laser generic name?

Active medium

27

Rapidly flashing lamp or electrical current field:

Pumping mechanisms

28

Control panel, delivery system, footswitch

all dental lasers have

29

modes of operation:

continuous

pulsed

30

optical fibers, hollow waveguide, articulated arm

delivery

31

pure photon energy has a max effective distance

True

*this is bell-shap multi-mode

32

Laser tissue interaction:

reflect

absorb

transmit

scatter

33

transmit in non-ionizing

nothing happens

34

scattering

may cause collateral

why use quickly

35

Absorption is dependent on wavelength and tissue composition

True

36

Absorption is

Thermal

Chemical

Acoustic

37

4 tissues

water

hemoglobin

melanin

HA

38

2 chromophores w/ hard tissue

soft tissue

3 chromophorex of sub epi

water enamel

Water melanin

water, hemoglobin, oxy-Hb

39

absorber of laser energy

chromophore

40

Nd:YAG shouldn't be used with... 40%

implant

41

Mid-IR Erbium 30%

no implnat

42

IR CO2 laser 10% Ti absorption

use with implants

43

photothermal ablation:

activate the tip

44

Coagulation depth is proportional to

absorption depth

45

gigival blood diameter:

21-40 microns

46

Cold steel scalpel:

blood, compression, sutures

47

Erbium lasers:

absorption won't damage whole vessel

48

Diode Laser:

coagulation before cutting

*bleeding very controlled

*photo coagulation widespread and imprecise

49

CO2 laser:

coeeficinent of absorption equal to...

best margin of ablation to coagulation

best

*cutting and coagulation at same time

50

Near IR

Mid IR

IR CO2

ineffecient

good ablaters/poor coagulation efficiency

highly efficient and accurate ablaters/excellent coagulators

51

To achieve hemostasis, tissue temp:

60 C

52

100 C:

anaerobic bacteria

*photo thermal lysis

53

excess of 200C

carbonization

***avoid

54

Light energy changed into what upon tissue interaction

Heat

55

unit of energy

unit of power

pulses per second

change from solid to vapor

joule

watt

hertz

ablation

56

Lasers used in diagnostics

True

57

Near IR targets

melanin, Hb

58

Activate tip must be ____ hot

red or white

59

Longer wavelength is of the _____ or _____family

chromophore targets:

Erbium, CO2

water

60

Long wavelengths cause what?

vaporization

61

Hard tissue cutting causes ______ and mineral to be ejected

Expansion

*not a smooth cut

62

optimal effects occur with energy apsorption by:

target tissue

63

Work

Energy

Power

Avg power

Pulse duration

Hertz

tissue effect

ability to perform work

work/time

sustained over time

emission

pulses/sec

64

avg power

peak power

beam diameter

energy density

free running

energy/pulse duration

smaller beam, more powerful

65

Carbon dioxide can go continuous or

superpulsed

66

Energy distribution w/ more electrons in higher energy state than lower one

Population inversion

67

ANSI classificaiton:

higher, greater hazard potential

68

Engineering administrative and porcedural

Laser control measures

69

primary responsibility

operator

70

don't look into a laser!!!

true

71

Open beam, so eye protection, control, etc

True

72

Laser recognition lights

should have in office

73

Class 1 - 4 lasers

1 safest

4 eye hazard

74

Class IIIA lasers can damage eye

true, but not in a short time

75

laser pointers

eye injury if look into it for a minute or so

76

Class IIIB laser,

eye damage if look directly

*no hazardous diffuse reflections

77

Class IV lasers

light scalpel, etc

can Damage

Hazardous diffuse

78

High power lasers:

Class IV

79

Don't use alcohol when using a laser

True

80

Eyes, skin are tissues at risk

True

81

MPE

Max Permissible Exposure

82

Cross check that you and your pts glasses are appropriate

True

83

Ablation produces what?

Plume

*protect with mask

84

NItrous can be used with Lasers

Never work with Pure Oxygen (pt on medical)

True

True

85

Test fire the laser prior to Pt sitting down

Always test with lowest power setting

True

True

86

tip size goes down by 2, increase power by

4

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