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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Final Deck (148):
1

List some anatomical features of the clavicle, distal to medial:

Acromial End, Trapazoid line, Conoid tubercle, sublclavian groove, Sternal end

2

Name 4 fossae of the scapula.

Supraspinous
Infraspinous
Subscapular
Glenoid

3

Where is the acromion process of the scapula found in relation to the coracoid process?

Acromion is an extension of the Scapular Spine and the Coracoid is deep to it.

4

What notch/foramen is below the Acromion Process?

Spinoglenoid foramen

5

What process make the arch under which the supraspinatus tendon passes?

The acromion
(3 types - flat, curved, and hooked)

6

Where does the deltoid attach to the humerus?

Halfway down

7

What is the name of the shoulder joint?

Gleno-humoral joint

8

What's bigger - the anatomical or surgical neck of the humerus?

Surgical
(anatomical just articulation)

9

What is a main feature of the Sternoclavicular joint?

Articular disc!

10

What ligament connects the two clavicles?

Interclavicular ligament

11

Name 4 ligaments in the sternoclavicular joint.

Interclavicular
Ant. sternoclavicular joint
Post. sternoclavicular joint
Costo-clavicular

12

_______ is part of the acromioclavicular joint.

An articular disc

13

What are the two coracoclavicular ligaments?

Trapezoid
Conoid

14

What are the 3 Glenohumoral Ligaments?

Inferior, Middle, Superior

15

What is the most important glenohumoral ligament in terms of stability?

Inferior

16

What kind of disc is found in the glenoid labrum?

Fibrocartilage disc

17

T/F
There is one glenohumoral bursa

False.
The shoulder has many bursae

18

What is the primary Glenohumoral bursa?
What is its function?

Subacromial
Cushions rotator cuff

19

What two structures form an arch over the humoral head?

Coracoacromial ligament
Subacromial bursa

20

Is the scapulothoracic a true articulation?

No. lacks a ligament or bony connection.
Only has loose CT

21

With what frequency does pathology occur within the coracoclavicular joint and what population is it more common?

1-9%
Asians

22

What are the 4 anterior muscles of the axioappendicular muscles?

Pectoralis Major
Pectoralis Minor
Subclavius
Serratus Anterior

23

Origin, insertion, action, innervation for Pec Major:

medial 1/2 clavicle & sternum > bicipital groove
humeral/horizontal adduction
medial/lateral pectoral n.

24

What could shorten the pectoralis minor?

hunching over a computer all day

25

What is the origin/insertion of the pectoralis minor?

Upper ribs (3-5) > medial coracoid process

26

What muscle in the axioappendicular is innervated by a nerve of the same name?

Subclavius

27

Origin, insertion, innervation of the serratus anterior?

Upper 8 Ribs > Anterior Scapula
Long thoracic n.

28

Name the 6 posterior axioappendicular muscles.

Trapezius, Latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, omohyoid

29

Cervical and Thoracic spine > Scapular spine/clavicle
CN XI and C3/C4

Trapezius

30

Spinous processes lower 6 Thoracic + lower 3-4 ribs + iliac crest and thoracolumbar fascia > Floor of bicipital groove

Lat. Dorsi

31

What nerve innervates the Latissimus dorsi?

thoracodorsal n.

32

What is the function of the two Rhomboids (major and minor)?

Scapular retraction

33

What innervates the Omohyoid?

Ansa cervicalis n. (of the cervical plexus)

34

What are the 6 Scapulohumeral Muscles?

Deltoid
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres Minor
Subscapularis
Teres Major

35

What four muscles make up the rotator cuff?

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres Minor
Subscapularis

36

Which rotator cuff muscle is injured the most?

Supraspinatus

37

Why are 4 separate muscles considered one rotator cuff?

Blends together around the humoral head with a conjoined tendon.

38

T/F
The Teres Major is part of the Rotator Cuff?

False

39

What innervate the Teres Major and Teres Minor?

Lower subscapular n.
Axillary n.

40

What are the 3 anterior muscles of the arm?

Biceps Brachii
Brachialis
Coracobrachialis

41

What are the 2 posterior muscles of the arm?

Triceps
Anconeus

42

What innervates the 3 muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm?

Musculocutaneous n.

43

What innervates the 2 muscles of the posterior compartment of the arm?

Radial n.

44

What are the 3 articulations in the elbow?

humero-radial
humero-ulnar
Proximal Radioulnar

45

What is the large rounded distal epicondyle of the humerus and with what does it articulate?

Capitellum
Radius

46

What is the humoral articular surface with the ulna?

Trochlea

47

name 2 anterior fossa of the distal humerus.

coronoid
radial

48

What is the name of the posterior fossa of the distal humerus?

Olecranon

49

The Ulna ______ in size distally, while the radius ______ in size distally.

Decreases
Increases

50

What separates the distal end of the ulna from the carpal bones?

TFCC
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex

51

What inserts into the ulnar and radial tuberosities?

Biceps

52

What is the round articular surface on radius called where it articulates with the humerus?

Articular fovea

53

What is the function of the annular ligament?

Cups the head of the radius at radio-humeral joint.

54

Anatomically, the humeroradial is what type of joint?

Ball and socket

55

The humeroradial joint articulates what two surfaces?

Capitellum with the Articular Fovea

56

The humeroradial joint is better at absorbing _____ compression than ______ compression.

lateral
medial

57

T/F
The reason the humeroradial joint is resistant to lateral forces is because of the radial collateral ligament.

False
Most resistance is structural and comes from Capitellum

58

What type of joint is the humeroulnar?

True hinge joint
(very stable)

59

What results in carrying an angle at the elbow?

The asymmetrical nature of the Trochlea in the humerus

60

What makes up the Ulnar Medial (collateral) ligament?

Anterior, Posterior, and Transverse bands

61

What is the point of articulation in the proximal radioulnar joint?

Radial head > Radial notch of ulna

62

What type of joint is the radioulnar?

Ellipsoid

63

What degree of freedom does the radioulnar joint allow?

Supination and pronation

64

What ligament holds the radial head against the ulna?

Annular L.

65

What does the annular ligament both originate in and insert to?

The Coronoid Process

66

What ligament prevents traction in the proximal radio-ulnar joint?

Annular Ligament

67

What motions does the Annular Ligament allow?

Pronation and Supination

68

How many carpal bones in the hand?

8
2 rows of 4

69

Name 3 joints of the wrist.

Distal Radioulnar
Radiocarpal
Midcarpal

70

What is unique about the Pisiform carpal bone?

Lies anterior to the triquetrium and forms the Tunnel of Guyon with the Hamate

71

What is the Tunnel of Guyon?

Forms a passage between the Pisiform and Hamate that the Ulnar n. passes through

72

Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle:

Scaphoid
Lunate
Triquetrium
Pisiform
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Capitate
Hamate

73

What is the most commonly fractured carpal bone?

Scaphoid

74

What bone is palpable at the snuff box?

Scaphoid

75

How many Metacarpals are there?

5

76

How many phalanges are there?

14

77

How many metacarpal joints are there?

5

78

How many proximal interphalangeal joints are there?

4

79

How many distal interphalangeal joints are there?

4

80

How many Interphalangeal joints are there?

1 (thumb)

81

What are the three groups of the flexor compartment (Anterior) of the forearm muscles?

Superficial, Intermediate, and Deep

82

What innervates almost all of the flexor muscles of the forearm?

Median n.

83

What are the four muscles of the superficial group of the flexor forearm muscles?

Pronator teres
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Palmaris Longus
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

84

What makes up the intermediate group of the flexor forearm?

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
(one muscle - don't know why this is a "group")

85

What muscle of the deep forearm flexion group has 2 innervations?

Flexor Digitorum Profundis
Median n. 2 & 3
Ulnar n. 4 & 5

86

What nerve innervates all extensor muscles of the forearm?

Radial n.

87

What are the 4 groups of the extensor forearm muscles and how many per group?

Lateral, Medial, Outcropping, and Miscellaneous groups
3 muscles per group

88

Which group of the extensor forearm muscles makes the anatomical snuff box?

Outcropping Group

89

1 Soup Now

Extensor Indicis
Supinator
Anconeous

90

What are the functions of the Palmar Aponeurosis?

Grip, protection (it's thick)
(also - deep insertion into palmar ligaments)

91

What is the thickening of the palmar fascia that contributes to flexion of the two ulnar fingers?

Dupuytren's Contracture
(something also about males over 50)

92

What are the boundaries of the carpal tunnel?

Hook of Hamate and Pisiform (ulnar) to Scaphoid tubercle and Crest of Trapezium (radial)
+
Transverse carpal ligament (on palmar (volar) side)

93

How many structures does the Carpal Tunnel have?

10

94

What are the 10 structures of the Carpal Tunnel

9 tendons
1 nerve
Flexor digitorum superficialis (4T)
Flexor digitorum profundus (4T)
Flexor pollicis longus (1T)
Median n.

95

What is a characteristic of all carpal tendons?

Synovial sheaths

96

What is it called when a synovial sheath of the carpal tunnel swells?

Tenosynovitis

97

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is an inflammation of what?

synovial sheaths

98

What nerve can suffer damage in carpal tunnel syndrome?

Median n.

99

Double Crush
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

something about Proximal Compression
in carpal tunnel syndrome

100

What is Trigger Finger?

inflamed synovial lining + compression = stuck finger

101

Name the 4 muscles of the Thenar Eminence superficial to deep.

Abductor pollicis brevis
Flexor pollicis brevis
opponens pollicis
Adductor pollicis

102

What are the three branches of the Aorta and where do they go?

Brachiocephalic Trunk (right)
Subclavian a. (left)
Common Carotid a. (left)

103

Where does the axial a. to brachial a. division occur?

Teres Major

104

What are the first two branches to come off the Subclavian a. ?

Vertebral a.
Thyrocervical a.

105

What are 2 arteries that branch off the Thyrocervical Trunk?

Suprascapular a.
Transverse cervical a.

106

What two arteries come off the Transverse Cervical a. and what do they supply?

Superficial branch > Trapezius
Deep branch > Rhomboids

107

Trace the rhomboids blood supply back to the Aorta.

Rhomboids > Deep branch transverse cervical a. > Transverse cervical a. > Thyrocervical Trunk > Subclavian > Aorta

108

When does the subclavian change to the Axillary?

After passes the 1st rib

109

When does the Axillary artery change its name to Brachial?

After Teres Major

110

The Thoraco-Acromial artery comes from what division of the Axillary and supplies what?

2nd Division Axillary
Pectoral, Acromial, Clavicular, Deltoid

111

What are the boundaries of the brachial artery?

Inferior border of the Teres Major to the Cubital Fossa

112

What is the 1st branch of the brachial artery and where does it go?

Profunda Brachii (follows the Radial n. deep and to the Posterior side)

113

What happens to the vasculature at the elbow?

Anastomosis of:
Brachial a. and Ulnar a. around medial elbow.
&
w/ Profunda brachii/distal Radial a. on anterior/posterior lateral elbow

114

Where does vasculature go after the elbow anastomosis?

Interosseous space in forearm
then,
Ulnar and Radial aa. continue distally

115

Distal to the cubital fossa, what does the brachial a. divide into?

Radial a. and Ulnar a.

116

What are the three arches of hand vasculature?

Superficial palmar
Deep palmar
Dorsal carpal

117

What are the two divisions of digital arteries and which one is distal?

Common palmar
Proper palmar

118

What veins do not parallel the arteries?

Cutaneous

119

What are the two cutaneous veins in the arm?

Cephalic
Basilic

120

What are the borders of the Cubital Fossa?

Pronator Teres
Brachioradialis
Line between epicondyles (of humerus?)

121

T/F
The brachial plexus is formed by the dorsal ramii

False

122

What comprises the roots of the Brachial Plexus?

Ventral Rami

123

What will the brachial plexus mostly innervate?

Somatic muscle - motor and sensory

124

What would a nerve traveling through a chain ganglia and using the brachial plexus pathway innervate?

Somatic smooth muscle (glands, erector pili)

125

If a nerve innervates visceral smooth muscle, it goes through ______ ganglia

prevertebral (splanchnic)

126

What spinal nerves make up the brachial plexus?

C5 - T1

127

When are Trunks formed in the Brachial Plexus?

When the Roots come together

128

The posterior division is _______ to the anterior divisions of the brachial plexus.

In between

129

What are the three cords in the brachial plexus?

lateral
posterior
medial

130

What are the branches of cords in the brachial plexus?

Lateral: Musculocutaneous & Lateral half median n.
Medial: Medial half median n. & Ulnar n.
Posterior: Axillary & Radial

131

What is the musculocutaneous nerve called at its termination?

Lateral antebrachial cutaneous n.

132

Mnemonic for Drawing plexus

You Young Mermaids LineUp in front of Poseidon's UTLRA Trident

133

Mnemonic for naming nerves

LSD SaLT MMMUMM

134

What does the axillary n. innervate?

Deltoid
Teres Minor

135

What spinal nerve contributions does the Ranial n. receive?

C5-T1

136

The radial nerve travels down the what part of the humerus and with what brachial artery?

Posterior humerus
deep brachial artery

137

Where does the radial nerve terminate?
What other nerves branch from it?

Dorsal Inerosseous n.
inferior lateral brachial cutaneous n.
posterior antebrachial cutaneous n.

138

How many muscles does the radial nerve innervate?

13

139

What does the Ulnar n. innervate?

medial hand / most muscles of hand
(skin of hand)

140

What does the Median n. innervate?

Flexor muscles in the forearm
and a few hand muscles
specific portion of cutaneous lateral hand

141

In the C5-T1 spinal nerves, what is the general pattern of innervation as move distally?

The more distal, the lower down the spine the innervation.

142

What nerve is affected in upper humeral/surgical neck breaks?

Axillary n.

143

A midshaft humeral break affects what nerve?

Radial n.

144

A distal humeral fracture affects?

Median n.

145

A medial epicondyle fracture affects?

Ulnar n.

146

A dermatome represents what level of innervation?

Root level

147

T/F
There are cutaneous nerves in the upper extremity that don't come from the brachial plexus.

False

148

What can be determined using dermatome testing?

Whether problem is root level or cutaneous level.

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