Flashcards in Hematology I Deck (136):
What type of drug is Warfarin?
% breakdown of Plasma, Buffy coat, and Erythrocytes:
Plasma - 55%
Buffy coat -
What layers of blood are considered the "formed elements"?
Buffy coat (includes leukocytes, platelets, and thrombocytes)
Name 3 Plasma Proteins:
What is serum?
Plasma minus clotting factors
Name 3 things that make up the Plasma?
What fraction of body weight is blood?
How much blood in an adult body?
What is the normal amount of RBC's in a hematocrit?
A low hematocrit suggests...
A hig hematocrit suggests...
What is the best method for evaluating and identifying immature and abnormal cells in the blood?
A normal blood smear is spaced...
What are the two functions of the RBC biconcave disc?
Increase surface area
Are platelets cells?
*fragments fo megakaryocytes
Where do megakaryocytes come from?
Break off in bone marrow
A platelet plug is another name for a blood clot
Precursors to clots (but sometimes all yo need)
What does a stained neutrophil nucleus look like?
Thin strands chromatin connecting
What is the most common type of WBC?
The defining characteristic of a neutrophil is...
Complex shape of nucleus
Neutrophils lack granules
small granules in cytoplasm
What is the primary function of neutrophils?
Defense against Bacteria and Fungi
What formed element usually has a 2 lobed nucleus?
What is the main function of eosinophil?
*many dark staining granules
What is the appearance of the nucleus in Basophils?
Deeply blue or red-violet
What leukocyte has the most numerous granulocytes?
How to distinguish between eosinophils and basophils?
Eosinophils: Defined 2 lobed nucleus, more granules
Basophils: 2-3 undefined lobes
What leukocyte mediates inflammatory rxns of allergy?
What are basophils called after they migrate into tissues?
What chemical do basophils (mast cells) carry that cause allergy symptoms?
What often has a c-shaped nucleus and is never lobed or round?
Monocytes have granules and lobes
No granules, no lobes
Besides the c-shaped nucleus and being agranulocytes, what is another feature of Monocytes?
*appears as white area "negative image"
What is the smallest WBC?
B and T lymphocytes have small nuclei
*Both large (and indistinguishable between the two)
What lymphocyte produces antibodies?
What lymphocytes direct the immune response through chemical intermediaries?
What lymphocyte produces enzymes that directly harm pathogen?
What is the 3rd type of Lymphocyte (other than B and T)?
NK - Natural Killer
What 2 proteins do Natural Killer cells secrete through granules that cause cell death?
What test panel measures cell counts, Hb, and Hematocrit?
Complete Blood Count
What test panel measures Proteins, electrolytes, etc?
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
What is the term for low WBC count?
What are immature neutrophils called?
What is seen in acute or chronic lymphocytic leukemia?
What makes up 1/3 mass RBC's?
What is the measurement of the average size of RBC's?
What test panel is this part of?
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
CBC (complete blood count)
What causes Macrocytic RBC's?
What type of RBC is seen in iron deficient anemia?
What does MCH stand for and what panel is it part of?
Mean Corpuscular Hemoblobin
CBC - Complete Blood Count
*Large RBC higher Hb count
MCH depends on ______, while MCHC is ______
independent of size
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration reveal two pathologies: either _____ or _____.
Hypochromia - diluted Hb inside RBC
Hyperchromia - concentrated Hb inside RBC
What CBC test reveals RBC size variation?
RDW - Red Cell Distribution Width
The amount of variation in RBC size is called...
The variation in shape is called...
too much platelet
What test in the CBC calculated average size of platelets?
MPV - mean platelet volume
What blood panel test usually requires fasting?
CMP - Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
What is fasting hyperglycemia associated with?
Diabetes mellitus (type I or II)
Too much/too little sodium is called:
What role does Na play in the small intestine?
Glc absorption facilitator
Too much/too little Potassium is called:
Potassium and Chloride are essential for acid base balance
Enzyme activation and Blood clotting both rely on what cation?
What is the most prevalent anion in the blood?
What 2 type of neurotransmitter does chloride facilitate?
What maintains oncotic pressure and transports thyroid hormones and bilirubin?
Albumin competitively binds Calcium ions
Albumin acts as a buffer
What nitrogenous waste product increases if kidneys aren't working?
(vs. creatine phosphate)
What gives urine its straw color?
What 2 enzymes, if elevated in the blood, suggest liver damage?
ALT - Alanine aminotransferase
AST - Aspartate aminotransferase
*Both involved in AA catabolism
What 3 things elevate ALP (Alkaline phosphatase)?
Elevation of what suggests liver damage?
ALP - Alkaline phosphatase
What is the hydrophobic waste product of Hb metabolism?
In what 3 organs are old RBC's processed?
Where is all bilirubin excreted?
What can too much bilirubin lead to?
What 4 types of lipid are tested in the lipid panel?
What lipid test indicates coronary or vascular disease?
2 Types of cholesterol
Endogenous (from liver)
What might work differently in people that have high cholesterol?
HMG-CoA reductase negative feedback
What drug shuts down cholesterol synth?
Statins like Lipitor or Crestor
What is the only way cholesterol is excreted?
What will high Niacin do?
raise HDL (with flushing)
What 2 factors lead to plaque formation?
LDL and Triglycerides
*more for LDL
What is the normal range serum for triglycerides?
What causes RBC's to settle more quickly when measuring Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate?
inflammation - from many sources
Specifically Rouleaux Stacks
What causes Rouleaux stacking?
Inflammatory mediators produced by liver and immune system
tube for ESR
What test can suggest Temporal Arteritis?
(chronic inflammation of large arteries of the head)
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
What test can diagnose Diabetes?
*glc attaches for cell's life
5 things that fail in diabetes:
An A1C over _____ suggests diabetes.
Fasting Plasma Glc over ____ suggests diabetes.
What liver produced protein is a marker for inflammation?
What blood marker is just as effective in predicting cardiac risk as cholesterol?
low risk CVD
High risk CVD
Periodontal disease is related to diabetes
There is a strong association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease
If someone has periodontal disease, what 3 tests should be run?
Blood glucose (fasting and A1C)
CRP (c-reactive protein)
Where are RBC's made?
Red bone marrow
In what 3 areas is red bone marrow found in adults?
Epiphyses of long bones
Where is yellow marrow found?
medullary cavity long bones
Where are RBC's made in the fetus?
*can occur in adults with certain diseases
What do pluripotential stem cells first divide into in forming cells?
What is the most important growth factor controlling erythropoiesis?
What 2 organs release EPO?
How do RBC's enter the circulation?
What are the 4 essential ingredients for producing normal RBC's?
*there are types of anemia associated with each of these
How do reticulocytes appear in a blood smear?
Describe the negative feedback loop for EPO
*Hypoxia will reverse
How many different proteins are in RBC cell membrane?
What are 6 types of integral proteins in RBC's?
What is the function of the Band 3 integral protein in RBC's?
Bicarbonate for Chloride
(one for one)
*25% total mem. protein
What is the function of Glycophorin?
Negatively charged, reduces interaction of red cells with one another and others
What integral protein gets glucose inside RBC's?
Name 4 peripheral/cytoskeletal proteins that flexibility and resiliency.
(all inside cell)
What disease causes sphere-shaped RBC's?
*smaller and lack pale center on smear
What % CO2 is transported as carbamino-Hb?
Each Hb has -SH in ____ form and Fe in ____ form.
What happens when ionic gradients fail in RBC's?
Glucose metabolism relies exclusively on Cytosolic Proteins.
What is the primary function of NADH in RBC?
Keeps Fe in reduced state
What is the primary function of NADPH in RBC?
maintains Reduced Glutathione
*essential for maintaining structure
What does 1 molecule of glc yeild in RBC?
What alternate pathway is entered by about 10% of glc in RBC?
What does this produce?
(hexose monophosphate shunt)
What is THE enzyme of the PPP (yielding NADPH)?
What links the PPP to glycolysis?
*if oxidized enters PPP
If Glc-6-P is oxidized it enters _____
If isomerized it _____
proceeds through glycolysis
What is the lifespan of RBC?
Dead RBC is removed from circulation by what 2 organs?
What is the waste product of RBC degradation?
What osmotic pressure shrinks RBC
What NaCl solution is isotoinic with plasma?
pH = pKa + log [HCO3-] / [CO2]
How much mEq/L of protons are made daily?
3 blood buffers
Bicarbonate (carbonic anhydrase rxn)
Proteins (albumin, Hb)
How does the blood regulate temperature?
Sympathetic - vasoconstrict
Parasympathetic - vasodilate
*alpha 1 mediated vessels