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Flashcards in Neuro1 Deck (72):
1

Is the spinal cord in the CNS?

Yes

2

What system is the ANS a part of?

PNS

3

What are the 2 main types of glial cells?

Astrocyte
Oligodendrocyte

4

What makes up the telencephalon?

cerebral cortex
caudate
putamen
globus pallidus

5

What makes up the diencephalon?

thalamus
hypothalamus

6

What is the cortex primarily made out of?

Cell bodies
(this is gray matter)

7

What 8 things make up the limbic system?

Frontal lobe
Temporal lobe
Cingulate gyrus
Thalamus
Hypocampus
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Olfactory system

8

What is the caudal end of the spinal cord?

Filum terminale

9

What is an axon collateral?

branches enabling neuron to activate more than one effector cell

10

Hyperpolarization =

Inhibition

11

What charged ion will produce hyperpolarization?

Negatively charged
Cl-

12

What ions wil produce depolarization?

Positively charged

13

Name 4 types of neurons:

unipolar
pseudounipolar (sensory)
bipolar (special sensory)
multipolar

14

What are the 3 functional classes of neurons?

afferent
efferent
interneurons

15

Clusters of neuronal cell bodies can be either/or

nuclei
ganglion

16

Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglia are all:

Glial cells of the CNS

17

What is the function of ependymal cells?

produce some csf. Line ventricles, cerebral aqueduct, and central canal of the spinal cord.

18

Microglia function:

macrophages

19

What are the supportive cells of the PNS?

Schwnn cells (myelinating and non-myelinating)
Satellite cells

20

What is a glioblastoma multiforme?

astrocytoma - usually lethal

21

What is the resting membrane potential?

-70 to -90 mV

22

Na+ is greater:

outside the cell

23

K+ is greater:

inside the cell

24

EPSP vs. IPSP

EPSP - depolarize a small amount
IPSP - hyperpolarize a small amount

25

graded potential:

decays

26

temporal vs spatial summation:

temporal - single synapse
spatial - multiple synapse

27

What is the cell's threshold for firing an action potential?

-55mV

28

What helps remove some excess K+ ions in the CNS?

astrocytes

29

What causes plateau potentials?

Ca+ entry into neuron - spasticity and cramps

30

What is conduction in the "normal" direction called?

orthodromic conduction

31

What is conduction in the opposite direction called?

antidromic conduction

32

Process of passing signal from one neuron to another:

synaptic transmission

33

What channels open in an axon terminal?

Ca+

34

What does Ca+ do in an axon terminal?

Cause the release of synaptic vesicles

35

What are 3 ways neurotransmitter is removed from a synapse?

Diffusion
Inactivation by enzyme
Re-uptake

36

Where does an IPSP never occur?

skeletal m. cell (post-synaptic always excitatory)

Excitation-Contraction coupling

37

Where are neurotransmitters synthesized?

by neurons

38

What are 5 broad classes of neurotransmitter?

Monoamines
Cholinergic
AA
Neuropeptides
Nontraditional (NO and CO2)

39

What are 2 types of Monoamines?

Catecholamines (including norepinepherine, epinepherine, and dopamine)

Serotonin

40

What are 3 types of AA neurotransmitter?

GABA
glycine
glutamate

41

Endorphins are in what neurotransmitter class?

neuropeptides

42

What are the 2 broad classes of receptors?

Ionotropic (neurotransmitter opens up channel)

Metabotropic (range of changes)

43

What is the general action pathway for metabotropic receptors?

bind receptor and change its shape
activate G-protein
then,
1. open ion channels
2. activate genes
3. modulate intracellular Ca+ conc.

44

What determines whether the neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory?

the Receptor

45

What is in the CNS, PNS, NMJ, and is muscarinic and nicotinic?

Ach

46

What is a catecholaminergic neurotransmitter that is primarily autonomic in nature?

norepinepherine

47

What is a catecholaminergic neurotransmitter that is involved in cognition and motivation?

Dopamine

48

What is a monoaminergic neurotransmitter that is implicated in emotional control?

Serotonin

49

What is an AA neurotransmitter that is considered excitatory?

Glutamate

50

What is an AA neurotransmitter that is considered inhibitory?

GABA

51

2 cell stage:
4 cell stage:

30 hrs
40 hrs

52

Morula appears:
Blastocyst appears:

3 days
5 days

53

Implantation occurs:

day 6

54

Endoderm/ectoderm form:

end of 2nd week

55

When do mesodermal cells form?

3rd week

56

When is the trilamminar state?

16 days

57

When does the rostral portion of the neural tube close?
Caudal portion?

day 27
day 30

58

What are 3 types of spina bifida

Oculta (tuft of hair/pad of fat)
Meningocele (dura protrudes)
Myelomeningocele (spinal cord + dura)

59

What malformation called when part of the cerebellum and caudal brainstem protrude through the foramen magnum?

Arnold-Chiari

60

What is the innermost functional layer consisting of pleuripotent cells?

Germinal zone
(ventricular zone)

61

What are the 3 functional layers (zones) of the neural plate and neural tube?

Germinal
Intermediate
Marginal (cortical plate)

62

How do neuroblasts migrate out of the germinal zone?

they use radial glial cells and their own axons

Radial Migration

63

What are the 3 structures important in the formation of the spinal cord?

Sulcus limitans (separates dorsal/ventral neurons)
Alar plate (dorsal, sensory and association neurons)
Basla plate (ventral, motor neurons)

64

How does the axon elongate?

Via growth cone and filapodia and lamellipodia that act like extensions and crawl.

65

What are the 4 pathfinding techniques for axons?

Contact/Chemo Repulsion/Attraction

Ligand/receptor mediated at growth cone

66

We have more than or less than the number of synapses needed at birth?

More than
pruning later

67

What 3 places exhibit neuroplasticity?

Synapse (everything you can think of)
Axon (either regenerative of collateral sprouting)
Soma (altered gene expression)

68

What is Hebb's Law?

Cells that fire together wire together

69

In the brain, the newest cells are found where?

The outside.

Leapfrogging action

70

Where is the Dorsal/Ventral divide in migration in the spinal cord?

Sulcus Limitans

71

Where does regenerative sprouting occur?

PNS

not normally seen in CNS

72

What are the 5 stages of Nervous system develpment?

Neurulation
Cell proliferation
neuronal migration
cytodifferentiation/axonal elongation
Maturation of synaptic contacts and refinement

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