Flashcards in Neuro1 Deck (72):
Is the spinal cord in the CNS?
What system is the ANS a part of?
What are the 2 main types of glial cells?
What makes up the telencephalon?
What makes up the diencephalon?
What is the cortex primarily made out of?
(this is gray matter)
What 8 things make up the limbic system?
What is the caudal end of the spinal cord?
What is an axon collateral?
branches enabling neuron to activate more than one effector cell
What charged ion will produce hyperpolarization?
What ions wil produce depolarization?
Name 4 types of neurons:
bipolar (special sensory)
What are the 3 functional classes of neurons?
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies can be either/or
Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglia are all:
Glial cells of the CNS
What is the function of ependymal cells?
produce some csf. Line ventricles, cerebral aqueduct, and central canal of the spinal cord.
What are the supportive cells of the PNS?
Schwnn cells (myelinating and non-myelinating)
What is a glioblastoma multiforme?
astrocytoma - usually lethal
What is the resting membrane potential?
-70 to -90 mV
Na+ is greater:
outside the cell
K+ is greater:
inside the cell
EPSP vs. IPSP
EPSP - depolarize a small amount
IPSP - hyperpolarize a small amount
temporal vs spatial summation:
temporal - single synapse
spatial - multiple synapse
What is the cell's threshold for firing an action potential?
What helps remove some excess K+ ions in the CNS?
What causes plateau potentials?
Ca+ entry into neuron - spasticity and cramps
What is conduction in the "normal" direction called?
What is conduction in the opposite direction called?
Process of passing signal from one neuron to another:
What channels open in an axon terminal?
What does Ca+ do in an axon terminal?
Cause the release of synaptic vesicles
What are 3 ways neurotransmitter is removed from a synapse?
Inactivation by enzyme
Where does an IPSP never occur?
skeletal m. cell (post-synaptic always excitatory)
Where are neurotransmitters synthesized?
What are 5 broad classes of neurotransmitter?
Nontraditional (NO and CO2)
What are 2 types of Monoamines?
Catecholamines (including norepinepherine, epinepherine, and dopamine)
What are 3 types of AA neurotransmitter?
Endorphins are in what neurotransmitter class?
What are the 2 broad classes of receptors?
Ionotropic (neurotransmitter opens up channel)
Metabotropic (range of changes)
What is the general action pathway for metabotropic receptors?
bind receptor and change its shape
1. open ion channels
2. activate genes
3. modulate intracellular Ca+ conc.
What determines whether the neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory?
What is in the CNS, PNS, NMJ, and is muscarinic and nicotinic?
What is a catecholaminergic neurotransmitter that is primarily autonomic in nature?
What is a catecholaminergic neurotransmitter that is involved in cognition and motivation?
What is a monoaminergic neurotransmitter that is implicated in emotional control?
What is an AA neurotransmitter that is considered excitatory?
What is an AA neurotransmitter that is considered inhibitory?
2 cell stage:
4 cell stage:
end of 2nd week
When do mesodermal cells form?
When is the trilamminar state?
When does the rostral portion of the neural tube close?
What are 3 types of spina bifida
Oculta (tuft of hair/pad of fat)
Meningocele (dura protrudes)
Myelomeningocele (spinal cord + dura)
What malformation called when part of the cerebellum and caudal brainstem protrude through the foramen magnum?
What is the innermost functional layer consisting of pleuripotent cells?
What are the 3 functional layers (zones) of the neural plate and neural tube?
Marginal (cortical plate)
How do neuroblasts migrate out of the germinal zone?
they use radial glial cells and their own axons
What are the 3 structures important in the formation of the spinal cord?
Sulcus limitans (separates dorsal/ventral neurons)
Alar plate (dorsal, sensory and association neurons)
Basla plate (ventral, motor neurons)
How does the axon elongate?
Via growth cone and filapodia and lamellipodia that act like extensions and crawl.
What are the 4 pathfinding techniques for axons?
Ligand/receptor mediated at growth cone
We have more than or less than the number of synapses needed at birth?
What 3 places exhibit neuroplasticity?
Synapse (everything you can think of)
Axon (either regenerative of collateral sprouting)
Soma (altered gene expression)
What is Hebb's Law?
Cells that fire together wire together
In the brain, the newest cells are found where?
Where is the Dorsal/Ventral divide in migration in the spinal cord?
Where does regenerative sprouting occur?
not normally seen in CNS