Musculoskeletal - 521 - Test 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal - 521 - Test 2 Deck (126):
1

How many spinal nerves are there?

31 pairs

2

In the cervical region spinal nerves are above or below their corresponding numbered vertebrae?

Above

3

Which spinal nerve is a naming exception?

8

4

Which vertebrae is spinal nerve eight found between?

C7 and T1

5

In the thoracic region the spinal nerve is found above or below their corresponding numbered vertebrae?

Below

6

The T3 spinal nerve is above / below the T3 vertebrae?

Below

7

What is a non-smooth visceral muscle?

Heart

8

T/F
Ganglion are found ONLY in the PNS.

True

9

What are two main branches of spinal nerves?

Dorsal Ramus
Ventral Ramus

10

Where does the dorsal ramus of a spinal nerve go?

Innervates the deep muscles and skin of the back.

11

Describe a sensory neuron in the PNS?
Where is cell body?

Unipolar
Dorsal Root Ganglia
Afferent

12

What are the two types of Ganglia in the PNS?

Sensory and Autonomic
(so if it's motor, it's autonomic)

13

Where is the Trigeminal Ganglion?

In the head - innervates the faceWhat
(this must be an exception?)

14

Where is a 1st order sensory neuron?

dorsal root ganglion

15

What are neural nuclei and where are they found?

Cell bodies where synapses occur.
Found only in the CNS

16

Where is a 2nd order sensory neuron found?

Thalamus

17

On what spinal ramus do the white/grey rami and the sympathetic chain reside?

Ventral

18

What nerves bypass the sympathetic chain pathways?

Splanchnic nerves

19

What are generally the two neurotransmitters (pre/post ganglionic) used in the parasympathetic system?

ACh and ACh

20

What are generally the two neurotransmitters (pre/post ganglionic) used in the sympathetic system?

ACh and norepinepherine

21

What parasympathetic nerve completely skips using a ganglion and happens to be the biggest?

Vagus

22

Name the 7 parasympathetic spinal nerves.

III, VII, IX, X
S2, S3, S4

23

How many vertebrae are there?

33

24

What are the 5 sections of vertebrae and how many in each section

Cervical 7
Thoracic 12
Lumbar 5
Sacrum 5
Coccyx 4

25

Where is the cervicolthoracic junction?

C7

26

Describe the four curves of the spine

Cervical - lordotic
Thoracic - Kyphotic
Lumbar - Lordotic
Sacral - Kyphotic

27

What structure on the vertebrae typically obstructs movement?

Articulating process

28

What makes up the vertebral arch?

Pedicle and Lamina

29

Name four major anatomical parts of vertebrae and three processes

Body, vertebral arch, pedicle, lamina
Articular Spinous, Transverse

30

What processes facilitate movement?
What process inhibits movement?

Spinous, transverse (they are bigger)
Articulating (smaller, junctional, and therefore inhibitory)

31

What are some anatomical characteristics of the Atlas?

C1
No body or spinous process (but has a Posterior Tubercle)

32

Where is the Fovea Dentis?

Anterior (ventral) surface of the interior C1 Atlas
Point of articulation

33

Where is the groove for the vertebral artery?

C1 Atlas posterior lateral part of arch

34

Describe characteristics of the Axis?

C2
Has spinous process. Anterior articular facet called Dens/Odontoid Process (articulates with fovea dentis)

35

Where spatially is the Dens as it relates to the Fovea Dentis?

Medial

36

What two vertebrae lack discs?

C1 and C2
Atlas and Axis

37

What are some characteristics of C3-C7?

Small bodies, Bifid Processes, Large triangular foramen, Uncinate processes

38

At what angle are the articular facets in the cervical spine?

45 Degrees

39

Where is the transverse foramen found in cervical vertebrae?

Lateral to the small body

40

What process in the cervical spine prevents posterior sliding movements and limits lateral flexion?

Uncinate processes

41

What three motions are allowed by the cervical vertebrae?

Flexion/Extension
Lateral Flexion
Rotation

42

Describe characteristics of thoracic vertebrae.

Long spinous processes angled downward
Circular vertebral foramen (smaller than found in other vertebrae)

43

What type of joint articulates thoracic vertebrae with ribs?

Synovial

44

At what angle are articular facets of thoracic vertebrae?
What is the function?

60 degrees downward.
Limits movement

45

Thoracic bodies _______ in size caudally

Increase

46

Thoracic spinous processes _______ with lower vertebrae.

Overlap

47

Both cervical and Lumbar vertebrae have what shape of foramen?

Triangular

48

The lumbar articular facets are in what plane?

Saggital (vertical)

49

What process is unique to Lumbar vertebrae?

Mammilary

50

The mammilary process is an extension of what?

The superior articular process in Lumbar vertebrae.

51

Where is the majority of the motion in the Lumbar spine?

Saggital plane (very little rotation)

52

How many vertebrae are in the sacrum?

5 Fused

53

What major joint (articulation) is found in the sacrum?

Sacro - Illiac (SI)

54

Name three sacral articulations:

SI joint
L5 with S1
Sacrum to Coccyx

55

What are the sacral foramina?

found ant/post and carry spinal nerves

56

What comprises the coccyx?

3 (or 4) Very small bones
site of muscle attachments

57

Define Lordotic

Concave (from posterior pov)

58

Define Kyphotic

Convex (from post. pov)

59

What are the two bones of the pelvic girdle?

Ilium/ischium/pubis (bilateral innominate)

60

Hyperkyphosis refers to what section of the vertebrae?

Thoracic

61

Transection of spinal cord at C1-C3 results in:

No function below head
Respirator required

62

Transection of spinal cord at C4-C5 results in:

No limb function
Able to breath

63

Transection of spine at C6-C8 results in:

Loss of hand/upper limb function
(although may wheelchair functional)

64

T1 - T9 Transection results in:

Paralysis of both lower limbs

65

What transection results in some thigh function in which patient may walk with braces?

T10 - L1

66

L2 - L3 transection results in:

Most lower limb functional
Walking with short braces may be possible

67

Where is the Atlanto-Occipital joint?

C1 to skull

68

Where is the Atlanto-Axial joint?

C1-C2

69

Why are Uncovertebral joints only found C3-C7?

They require Uncinate processes.

70

What is another name for facet joints?

Zygapophyseal

71

Name 6 main ligaments of the spine

Supraspinous Ligament
Interspinous Ligament
Ligamentum Flava
InterTransverse Ligament
Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

72

What two ligaments are a continuation of the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament in C1?
What does it prevent?

Atlanto-occipital
Atlanto-Axial
Prevents excessive Lordosis (it is anterior)

73

What ligament is posterior in C-spine and a continuation of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament?

Tectorial Membrane

74

What does the Tectorial Membrane cover?

Dens

75

What ligament prevents Dens from dislocating into vertebral canal?

Cruciform (cruciate)

76

What ligaments connect the Dens to the Foramen Magnum?

Alar and Apical

77

What are the two vertebral body ligaments?

Anterior and Posterior Longitudinal ligaments

78

What are the four Vertebral Arch ligaments?

Supraspinous
Interspinous
Intertransverse
Ligamentum Flava

79

What color is the Ligamentum Flava and why?

yellow
made up of elastic fibers

80

What is the name of the anterior longitudinal ligament between C2 and occiput?

Anterior atlanto-axial L.
Anterior atlanto-occipital L.

81

What is the name of the posterior longitudinal ligament between C2 and occiput?

Tectorial membrane

82

What is the name of the Ligamentum Favum between C2 and occiput?

posterior atlanto-axial
posterior atlanto occipital
(found btwn Lamina - just like Flava)

83

The Interspinous ligament combines with ______ between C2 and Occiput.

Ligamentum Nuchae

84

The supraspinous ligament and the interspinous ligament combine to become what in C2-occiput?

Ligamentum nuchae

85

Name the 5 spine to pelvis ligaments

Iliolumbar
Sacroiliac
Sacrospinous
Sacrotuberous
Sacrococcygeal

86

Where do intervertebral discs start?

Below C2 (Axis)

87

How are intervertebral discs numbered?

By the vertebrae ABOVE

88

What are the two main components of a disc?

Annulus Fibrosis
Nucleus Pulposis

89

Where does the nucleus of a disc reside?

Somewhat posterior

90

Where do nerve roots exit the spinal column?

Posterior / Lateral

91

What side rupture of a disc will most disturb spinal nerve roots?

Posterior ruptures

92

What is the general term for narrowing of any nerve canal, including the spinal canal?

Stenosis

93

Review:
What are the three meninges?

Dura, Arachnoid, Pia

94

What are the denticulate ligaments, how many are there, and from what mater are they formed?

Innermost covering spinal cord
20-22 ligaments
Pia mater

95

The structure immediately superior to the spinal cord is...

Medulla Oblongata

96

What two sections of the spine have larger spinal cord in diameter?

Cervical and Lumbar

97

Where does the spinal cord end?

L1 and L2

98

Where does the Filum Terminale end?

Extends through conus medularis, caud equina, and ends at inferior coccyx

99

Where do the three spinal cord arteries run?

Anterior (1)
Posterior (2)

100

What nerves innervate the back?

Dorsal ramii
(both deep muscle and cutaneous)

101

The C1 Spinal nerve is ______ the C1 vertebrae, while the T1 Spinal nerve is _______ the T1 vertebrae.

Above
Below

102

Name four superficial (extrinsic) muscles of the back.

levator scapulae
trapezius
rhomboids
latissimus dorsi

103

What muscle runs from ligamentum nuchae to mastoid process on the skull?

Splenius Capitus

104

What muscle runs from the spinous processes on the T3-T6 to the transverse processes on C2-C4?

Splenius Cervicis

105

The splenius capitus and splenius cervicis make up what group of muscles?

Splenius group

106

What are the three muscles of the Erector Spinae Group?

I - Iliocostalis
Like - Longissimus
Standing - Spinalus

107

Name the Erector Spinae Group from Medial to Lateral.

Spinalis
Longissimus
Iliocostalis

108

What nerve innervates the Erector Spinae Group?

Posterior (Dorsal) Rami

109

Describe actions of the Erector Spinae Group

Lateral flexion (unilateral)
Extension (bilateral)

110

What 3 muscles make up the transversospinal group?

Semispinalis
Multifidi
Rotators

111

What nerve innervates the transversospinal group?

dorsal rami

112

What are the actions of the semispinalis, multifidi, and rotators (transversospinal group)?

Lateral flexion (same side)
Rotation (to opposite side)
Extension (bilateral)

113

Name the 4 muscles, 2 nerves, and 1 artery that make up the suboccipital triangle.

Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
Obliquus Capitus Superior
Obliquus Capitus Inferior
Suboccipital n.
Greater occipital n.
Vertebral artery

114

Name the 2 muscles that go from the Cervical spine to the skull.

Rectus Capitis Anterior
Rectus Capitis Lateralis

115

Name 2 muscles that have origin and insertion on the anterior c-spine.

Longus Colli
Longus Capitus

116

Name 4 muscles of the Lateral c-spine.

Scalenus Ant.
Scalenus Medius
Scalenus Post.
Sternomastoid

117

What innervates the three scalene muscles?

Ventral Rami of c-spinal nerves

118

Origin/Insertion Ant. Scalene:

Origin: superior 1st rib
Insertion: Transverse processes C3-C6

119

Origin/Insertion Mid. Scalene:

Origin: Superior 1st rib
Insertion: Transverse processes C4-C6

120

Origin/Insertion Post. Scalene:

Origin: 2nd rib
Insertion: Transverse processes C4-C6

121

Describe the actions of the Scalene muscles

Lateral flexion
contralateral rotation
rib elevation
Flexion

122

From whence does the brachial plexus emerge?

Between anterior and middle Scalene

123

Describe the boundaries of the Abdominal Cavity.

Diaphragm
Abdominal muscles
Inferior rib cage
Posterior abdominal wall muscles
Pelvic line

124

What are the abs?

Rectus Abdominus

125

From superficial to deep, name the muscular abdominal walls.

Rectus abdominus
External abdominal oblique
Internal abdominal oblique
Transverse abdominus

126

Name 3 muscles making up the posterior abdominal wall.

Quadratus lumborum
Psoas major
Iliacus

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