Flashcards in Musculoskeletal - 521 - Test 2 Deck (126):
How many spinal nerves are there?
In the cervical region spinal nerves are above or below their corresponding numbered vertebrae?
Which spinal nerve is a naming exception?
Which vertebrae is spinal nerve eight found between?
C7 and T1
In the thoracic region the spinal nerve is found above or below their corresponding numbered vertebrae?
The T3 spinal nerve is above / below the T3 vertebrae?
What is a non-smooth visceral muscle?
Ganglion are found ONLY in the PNS.
What are two main branches of spinal nerves?
Where does the dorsal ramus of a spinal nerve go?
Innervates the deep muscles and skin of the back.
Describe a sensory neuron in the PNS?
Where is cell body?
Dorsal Root Ganglia
What are the two types of Ganglia in the PNS?
Sensory and Autonomic
(so if it's motor, it's autonomic)
Where is the Trigeminal Ganglion?
In the head - innervates the faceWhat
(this must be an exception?)
Where is a 1st order sensory neuron?
dorsal root ganglion
What are neural nuclei and where are they found?
Cell bodies where synapses occur.
Found only in the CNS
Where is a 2nd order sensory neuron found?
On what spinal ramus do the white/grey rami and the sympathetic chain reside?
What nerves bypass the sympathetic chain pathways?
What are generally the two neurotransmitters (pre/post ganglionic) used in the parasympathetic system?
ACh and ACh
What are generally the two neurotransmitters (pre/post ganglionic) used in the sympathetic system?
ACh and norepinepherine
What parasympathetic nerve completely skips using a ganglion and happens to be the biggest?
Name the 7 parasympathetic spinal nerves.
III, VII, IX, X
S2, S3, S4
How many vertebrae are there?
What are the 5 sections of vertebrae and how many in each section
Where is the cervicolthoracic junction?
Describe the four curves of the spine
Cervical - lordotic
Thoracic - Kyphotic
Lumbar - Lordotic
Sacral - Kyphotic
What structure on the vertebrae typically obstructs movement?
What makes up the vertebral arch?
Pedicle and Lamina
Name four major anatomical parts of vertebrae and three processes
Body, vertebral arch, pedicle, lamina
Articular Spinous, Transverse
What processes facilitate movement?
What process inhibits movement?
Spinous, transverse (they are bigger)
Articulating (smaller, junctional, and therefore inhibitory)
What are some anatomical characteristics of the Atlas?
No body or spinous process (but has a Posterior Tubercle)
Where is the Fovea Dentis?
Anterior (ventral) surface of the interior C1 Atlas
Point of articulation
Where is the groove for the vertebral artery?
C1 Atlas posterior lateral part of arch
Describe characteristics of the Axis?
Has spinous process. Anterior articular facet called Dens/Odontoid Process (articulates with fovea dentis)
Where spatially is the Dens as it relates to the Fovea Dentis?
What two vertebrae lack discs?
C1 and C2
Atlas and Axis
What are some characteristics of C3-C7?
Small bodies, Bifid Processes, Large triangular foramen, Uncinate processes
At what angle are the articular facets in the cervical spine?
Where is the transverse foramen found in cervical vertebrae?
Lateral to the small body
What process in the cervical spine prevents posterior sliding movements and limits lateral flexion?
What three motions are allowed by the cervical vertebrae?
Describe characteristics of thoracic vertebrae.
Long spinous processes angled downward
Circular vertebral foramen (smaller than found in other vertebrae)
What type of joint articulates thoracic vertebrae with ribs?
At what angle are articular facets of thoracic vertebrae?
What is the function?
60 degrees downward.
Thoracic bodies _______ in size caudally
Thoracic spinous processes _______ with lower vertebrae.
Both cervical and Lumbar vertebrae have what shape of foramen?
The lumbar articular facets are in what plane?
What process is unique to Lumbar vertebrae?
The mammilary process is an extension of what?
The superior articular process in Lumbar vertebrae.
Where is the majority of the motion in the Lumbar spine?
Saggital plane (very little rotation)
How many vertebrae are in the sacrum?
What major joint (articulation) is found in the sacrum?
Sacro - Illiac (SI)
Name three sacral articulations:
L5 with S1
Sacrum to Coccyx
What are the sacral foramina?
found ant/post and carry spinal nerves
What comprises the coccyx?
3 (or 4) Very small bones
site of muscle attachments
Concave (from posterior pov)
Convex (from post. pov)
What are the two bones of the pelvic girdle?
Ilium/ischium/pubis (bilateral innominate)
Hyperkyphosis refers to what section of the vertebrae?
Transection of spinal cord at C1-C3 results in:
No function below head
Transection of spinal cord at C4-C5 results in:
No limb function
Able to breath
Transection of spine at C6-C8 results in:
Loss of hand/upper limb function
(although may wheelchair functional)
T1 - T9 Transection results in:
Paralysis of both lower limbs
What transection results in some thigh function in which patient may walk with braces?
T10 - L1
L2 - L3 transection results in:
Most lower limb functional
Walking with short braces may be possible
Where is the Atlanto-Occipital joint?
C1 to skull
Where is the Atlanto-Axial joint?
Why are Uncovertebral joints only found C3-C7?
They require Uncinate processes.
What is another name for facet joints?
Name 6 main ligaments of the spine
Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
What two ligaments are a continuation of the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament in C1?
What does it prevent?
Prevents excessive Lordosis (it is anterior)
What ligament is posterior in C-spine and a continuation of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament?
What does the Tectorial Membrane cover?
What ligament prevents Dens from dislocating into vertebral canal?
What ligaments connect the Dens to the Foramen Magnum?
Alar and Apical
What are the two vertebral body ligaments?
Anterior and Posterior Longitudinal ligaments
What are the four Vertebral Arch ligaments?
What color is the Ligamentum Flava and why?
made up of elastic fibers
What is the name of the anterior longitudinal ligament between C2 and occiput?
Anterior atlanto-axial L.
Anterior atlanto-occipital L.
What is the name of the posterior longitudinal ligament between C2 and occiput?
What is the name of the Ligamentum Favum between C2 and occiput?
posterior atlanto occipital
(found btwn Lamina - just like Flava)
The Interspinous ligament combines with ______ between C2 and Occiput.
The supraspinous ligament and the interspinous ligament combine to become what in C2-occiput?
Name the 5 spine to pelvis ligaments
Where do intervertebral discs start?
Below C2 (Axis)
How are intervertebral discs numbered?
By the vertebrae ABOVE
What are the two main components of a disc?
Where does the nucleus of a disc reside?
Where do nerve roots exit the spinal column?
Posterior / Lateral
What side rupture of a disc will most disturb spinal nerve roots?
What is the general term for narrowing of any nerve canal, including the spinal canal?
What are the three meninges?
Dura, Arachnoid, Pia
What are the denticulate ligaments, how many are there, and from what mater are they formed?
Innermost covering spinal cord
The structure immediately superior to the spinal cord is...
What two sections of the spine have larger spinal cord in diameter?
Cervical and Lumbar
Where does the spinal cord end?
L1 and L2
Where does the Filum Terminale end?
Extends through conus medularis, caud equina, and ends at inferior coccyx
Where do the three spinal cord arteries run?
What nerves innervate the back?
(both deep muscle and cutaneous)
The C1 Spinal nerve is ______ the C1 vertebrae, while the T1 Spinal nerve is _______ the T1 vertebrae.
Name four superficial (extrinsic) muscles of the back.
What muscle runs from ligamentum nuchae to mastoid process on the skull?
What muscle runs from the spinous processes on the T3-T6 to the transverse processes on C2-C4?
The splenius capitus and splenius cervicis make up what group of muscles?
What are the three muscles of the Erector Spinae Group?
I - Iliocostalis
Like - Longissimus
Standing - Spinalus
Name the Erector Spinae Group from Medial to Lateral.
What nerve innervates the Erector Spinae Group?
Posterior (Dorsal) Rami
Describe actions of the Erector Spinae Group
Lateral flexion (unilateral)
What 3 muscles make up the transversospinal group?
What nerve innervates the transversospinal group?
What are the actions of the semispinalis, multifidi, and rotators (transversospinal group)?
Lateral flexion (same side)
Rotation (to opposite side)
Name the 4 muscles, 2 nerves, and 1 artery that make up the suboccipital triangle.
Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
Obliquus Capitus Superior
Obliquus Capitus Inferior
Greater occipital n.
Name the 2 muscles that go from the Cervical spine to the skull.
Rectus Capitis Anterior
Rectus Capitis Lateralis
Name 2 muscles that have origin and insertion on the anterior c-spine.
Name 4 muscles of the Lateral c-spine.
What innervates the three scalene muscles?
Ventral Rami of c-spinal nerves
Origin/Insertion Ant. Scalene:
Origin: superior 1st rib
Insertion: Transverse processes C3-C6
Origin/Insertion Mid. Scalene:
Origin: Superior 1st rib
Insertion: Transverse processes C4-C6
Origin/Insertion Post. Scalene:
Origin: 2nd rib
Insertion: Transverse processes C4-C6
Describe the actions of the Scalene muscles
From whence does the brachial plexus emerge?
Between anterior and middle Scalene
Describe the boundaries of the Abdominal Cavity.
Inferior rib cage
Posterior abdominal wall muscles
What are the abs?
From superficial to deep, name the muscular abdominal walls.
External abdominal oblique
Internal abdominal oblique