Flashcards in Clinical Pathology I Deck (63):
What are the 5 microscopic hallmarks of Anaplasia?
Cellular pleomorphism (variation size/shape)
High N/C ratio (1:1 instead of 1:4 or 6)
Large numbers of abnormal mitotic figures
What is the name for a Glandular Malignant Tumor?
What is the name for a Glandular Benign Tumor?
CT - Benign
CT - Malignant
A malignant Glandular or Epithelial tissue:
A benign Glandular or Epithelial tissue:
What does EBV cause?
(3 diseases, 1 cancer)
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Asbestos causes what 2 cancers?
Squamous cell cancers (in smokers)
What is an adaptive change of one cell type for another to suit the environment?
What is the best example of Metaplasia?
Bronchial - ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
***Squamous Cell Carcinoma
***caused by smoking
What is the best example of Atrophy?
An example of Physiologic Hypertrophy?
Skeletal muscles from working out
Best example of Pathologic Hypertrophy?
What is the best example of Dysplasia?
What is the definition of Dysplasia?
Disordered tissue growth from irritation/infection
Malignant tumors are defined by what 2 hallmark characteristics?
*Additionally they are... (2 things)
Benign tumors are defined by what 5 characteristics?
Resemble origin tissue
Encapsulated with CT
What are the 4 tumors that have ....oma suffix that are malignant?
(normally they would be benign CT with that suffix)
What are the 4 mechanisms that can activate an Oncogene?
Viral gene insertion
A normal protein will not activate an Oncogene.
What are the 2 best known Tumor Suppressor Genes?
Retinoblastoma gene (Rb-1)
p53 (colon/breast carcinoma)
What 2 cancers are associated with high levels of Erythropoietin (resulting in polycythemia) found in both the tumor and the serum of pts?
Renal Cell Carcinoma
What defines the difference between reversible and irreversible cell injury?
Nucleus intact, energy source restored = cell reverts to normal
What are 2 signs of irreversible cell damage?
Damage to nucleus
Rupture of cell membrane (loss of integrity)
What are 3 examples of nuclear cell damage that are irreversible?
Pyknosis (chromatin condensation)
Karyolysis (nuclear dissolution/lysis of chromatin)
What 4 viruses cause cancer?
What is the major difference between autolysis and necrosis?
Necrosis: living (with inflammation)
Autolysis: tissues after death
What are the 4 types of Necrosis?
What is the best example of Fat Necrosis?
What are the best 2 examples of Caseous necrosis?
What are 3 (and best example) of a Metastatic Calcification?
(as opposed to dystrophic)
Vita D toxicity
Chronic Renal Failure
*all form stones in gallbladder, kidney, or bladder
*precipitates from solution
What do we call a benign tumor of Epithelial Origin that is glandular?
What do we call a benign tumor of Squamous Origin?
Where usually found?
Tumor derived from 3 germ cell layers
Nitrosamines have been implicated in causing what types of cancers?
*esp. Esophageal and Stomach
3,4 Benzypyrene causes what cancer?
Where is this chemical often found?
Azo dyes cause what cancer?
UV radiation results in creating what intermediate that causes damage?
Pyrimidine dimers in DNA
Adenoma is benign. If it is malignant, then what is it called?
The cancers of the Urinary tract and Bladder are what type?
Transitional Cell Carcinomas
Aflotoxin B1 causes what cancer?
What cancer does Nickel cause?
Who grades a Cancer?
How many grades are there?
What are the 3 Grades of Cancer?
Grade I - Well-differentiated (grow slower)
Grade II - Moderately differentiated
Grade III - Poorly/Undifferentiated (grow faster - worst kind)
What are the 3 routes of cancer Metastasis?
Direct Extension (seeding/surface/adjacent)
Which cancer metastasizes within the Lymphatics the most?
Who has the highest rates of Gastric Cancer?
Who has the highest rates of Colon Cancer?
Japan (10x US)
US (3-4x more common than rest of world)
The highest incidence of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma exist where?
(and Hong Kong, Singapore - HBV associated)
Match virus to cancer
What 2 cancers are linked to EBV?
When Uranium is decayed into Radon, what carcinogenic particle is emitted?
What is the association of HHV8 and HIV?
HPV and HIV?
Cervical (and related)
What Paraneoplastic Syndrome is related to Venous Thrombosis?
What hormone is secreted as a Paraneoplastic Syndrome with Renal Cell Carcinomas?
HPV cancers are always of what type?
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
What is a malignant tumor of Smooth Muscle Called?
Increase in cell size
Increase in cell number
What is the best example of Pathologic Hypertrophy?
By what criteria is staging assessed?
T - Tumor size
N - Lymph node status
M - Metastasis