Clinical Pathology I Flashcards Preview

Tim's Cards > Clinical Pathology I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Pathology I Deck (63):
1

What are the 5 microscopic hallmarks of Anaplasia?

Cellular pleomorphism (variation size/shape)

Irregular/Hyperchromatic nuclei

High N/C ratio (1:1 instead of 1:4 or 6)

Large nucleoli

Large numbers of abnormal mitotic figures

2

What is the name for a Glandular Malignant Tumor?

Adenocarcinoma

3

What is the name for a Glandular Benign Tumor?

Adenoma

4

CT - Benign

Fat:

Vascular:

Bone:

Cartilage:

Smooth muscle:

Skeletal muscle:

Lipoma

Angioma

Osteoma

Chondroma

Lyomyoma

Rhabdomyoma

5

CT - Malignant

Bone:

Cartilage:

Smooth muscle:

Vascular:

Skeletal muscle:

Osteosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma

Lyomyosarcoma

Angiosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma

6

A malignant Glandular or Epithelial tissue:

Adenocarcinoma

7

A benign Glandular or Epithelial tissue:

Adenoma

8

Malignant CT:

Sarcoma

9

Benign CT:

...oma

10

What does EBV cause?

(3 diseases, 1 cancer)

Infectious Mononucleosis

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Burkitt Lymphoma

***Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

11

Asbestos causes what 2 cancers?

Mesotheliomas

Squamous cell cancers (in smokers)

12

What is an adaptive change of one cell type for another to suit the environment?

Metaplasia

13

What is the best example of Metaplasia?

Bronchial - ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

to

Stratified Squamous

***Squamous Cell Carcinoma

***caused by smoking

14

What is the best example of Atrophy?

Alzheimer's

15

An example of Physiologic Hypertrophy?

Skeletal muscles from working out

16

Best example of Pathologic Hypertrophy?

Hypertensive Heart

17

What is the best example of Dysplasia?

Cervical

18

What is the definition of Dysplasia?

Disordered tissue growth from irritation/infection

19

Malignant tumors are defined by what 2 hallmark characteristics?

*Additionally they are... (2 things)

Necrosis

Hemorrhage

*unencapsulated

*invasive

20

Benign tumors are defined by what 5 characteristics?

Compression

Expansile

Resemble origin tissue

Encapsulated with CT

Localized

21

What are the 4 tumors that have ....oma suffix that are malignant?

(normally they would be benign CT with that suffix)

Astrocytoma

Seminoma

Melanoma

Lymphoma

22

What are the 4 mechanisms that can activate an Oncogene?

Point mutation

Amplification

Chromosome rearrangement

Viral gene insertion

23

T/F
A normal protein will not activate an Oncogene.

True

24

What are the 2 best known Tumor Suppressor Genes?

Retinoblastoma gene (Rb-1)

p53 (colon/breast carcinoma)

25

What 2 cancers are associated with high levels of Erythropoietin (resulting in polycythemia) found in both the tumor and the serum of pts?

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinomas

26

What defines the difference between reversible and irreversible cell injury?

Nucleus intact, energy source restored = cell reverts to normal

27

What are 2 signs of irreversible cell damage?

Damage to nucleus

Rupture of cell membrane (loss of integrity)

28

What are 3 examples of nuclear cell damage that are irreversible?

Pyknosis (chromatin condensation)

Karyorrhexis (fragmentation)

Karyolysis (nuclear dissolution/lysis of chromatin)

29

What 4 viruses cause cancer?

HPV

Hep B

EBV

HHV8 (herpes)

30

What is the major difference between autolysis and necrosis?

Necrosis: living (with inflammation)

Autolysis: tissues after death

31

What are the 4 types of Necrosis?

Coagulative

Liquefactive

Caseous

Fat

32

What is the best example of Fat Necrosis?

Pancreatic rupture

33

What are the best 2 examples of Caseous necrosis?

Tuberculosis

Histoplasmosis (fungal)

34

What are 3 (and best example) of a Metastatic Calcification?

(as opposed to dystrophic)

Hyperparathyroidism

Vita D toxicity

Chronic Renal Failure

*all form stones in gallbladder, kidney, or bladder

*precipitates from solution

35

What do we call a benign tumor of Epithelial Origin that is glandular?

Adenoma

36

What do we call a benign tumor of Squamous Origin?

Papilloma

37

Define Teratoma?

Where usually found?

Tumor derived from 3 germ cell layers

Testes/Ovaries

38

Nitrosamines have been implicated in causing what types of cancers?

GI tract

*esp. Esophageal and Stomach

39

3,4 Benzypyrene causes what cancer?

Where is this chemical often found?

Lung

Cigarette smoke

40

Azo dyes cause what cancer?

Bladder

41

UV radiation results in creating what intermediate that causes damage?

Pyrimidine dimers in DNA

42

Adenoma is benign. If it is malignant, then what is it called?

Adenocarcinoma

43

The cancers of the Urinary tract and Bladder are what type?

Transitional Cell Carcinomas

44

Aflotoxin B1 causes what cancer?

Liver

45

What cancer does Nickel cause?

Nasal

46

Who grades a Cancer?

How many grades are there?

Pathologist

3

47

What are the 3 Grades of Cancer?

Grade I - Well-differentiated (grow slower)

Grade II - Moderately differentiated

Grade III - Poorly/Undifferentiated (grow faster - worst kind)

48

What are the 3 routes of cancer Metastasis?

Lymphatics (Breast)

Blood

Direct Extension (seeding/surface/adjacent)

49

Which cancer metastasizes within the Lymphatics the most?

Breast

50

Who has the highest rates of Gastric Cancer?

Who has the highest rates of Colon Cancer?

Japan (10x US)

US (3-4x more common than rest of world)

51

The highest incidence of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma exist where?

China

(and Hong Kong, Singapore - HBV associated)

52

Match virus to cancer
HTLV-1:

HPV:

HepB:

T-cell leukemias

Cervical

Hepatocellular

53

What 2 cancers are linked to EBV?

Burkitt Lymphoma

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

*B-cell lymphomas

54

When Uranium is decayed into Radon, what carcinogenic particle is emitted?

Alpha particle

55

What is the association of HHV8 and HIV?

HPV and HIV?

Kaposi's Sarcoma

Cervical (and related)

56

What Paraneoplastic Syndrome is related to Venous Thrombosis?

Pancreatic Cancer

57

What hormone is secreted as a Paraneoplastic Syndrome with Renal Cell Carcinomas?

Erythropoietin

58

HPV cancers are always of what type?

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

59

What is a malignant tumor of Smooth Muscle Called?

Lyomyosarcoma

60

Hypertrophy:

Hyperplasia:

Increase in cell size

Increase in cell number

61

What is the best example of Pathologic Hypertrophy?

Hypertensive heart

62

By what criteria is staging assessed?

T - Tumor size

N - Lymph node status

M - Metastasis

63

Exposure in the production of _______ produces Angiosarcoma of the Liver.

Vinyl Chloride (plastics)

*making records

Decks in Tim's Cards Class (140):