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Flashcards in Neuro2 Deck (88):
1

How many neurons are estimated to be in the cortical gray matter?

10 Billion

2

What 6 layers make up the cortical gray matter?

Molecular
External Granular
External Pyramidal
Internal Granular
Internal Pyramidal
Multiform

3

Name 5 types of important cells in the 6 layers of cortical gray matter.

Pyramidal
Stellate
Fusiform
Horizontal cells of Cajal
cells of Martinotti

4

What two directional categories does white matter have in relation to cortical gray matter?

Radial fibers - run toward the cortex
Tangential fibers - run parallel to the cortex

5

What is the smallest division of functionally-grouped activity within the cortex?

Vertical columns

6

Vertical columns form:

Functionally specialized areas

7

Functionally specialized areas of vertical columns are grouped together into anatomically distinct:

Lobes or Cortices

8

Lobes/cortices can be further grouped into other connected areas in:

Functional circuits

9

Functional circuits can be connected via what 3 pathways?

Association fibers (intra-hemisphere)
Commissural fibers (contralateral hemisphere)
Projection fibers (thalamocortical - fibers leave cortex and go ANYwhere other than cortex)

10

What do association fibers connect anatomically?

to the same hemisphere

11

What do commissural fibers connect anatomically?

to the opposite (contralateral) hemisphere

12

Where do projection fibers originate?

The Thalamus

13

Name 5 important functional areas of the cortex.

Primary Sensory cortices
Sensory Association cortices
Motor Planning cortices
Primary Motor cortices
Association cortices

14

Where is the primary somatosensory cortex?

Post-central gyrus

(this is the sensory homunculus)

15

What does a lesion on the somatosensory cortex cause?

Deficit in sensation from the opposite side of the body

(hemi-anasthesia contralateral to lesion)

16

Where is the somatosensory association complex?

Superior parietal lobe and supramarginal gyrus

(this identifies the object you are feeling)

17

Where is the primary visual cortex?

Cuneus and Lingual gyri

(analyzes visual world without association)

18

Where is the visual association cortex?

Medial and lateral occipital gyri
Angular gyrus

19

Where is the primary auditory cortex?
The auditory association cortex?

Superior Temporal Gyrus/Transverse Temporal gyri

Superior Temporal Gyrus

20

Wernike's area is a specialized part of what?
function?

The auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus.

Spoken language comprehension

21

What do the uncus, piriform cortex, periamygdaloid, and part of parahippocampal gyrus make up?

The Primary Olfactory Cortex

22

What is Agnosia?

Inability to recognize an object or to interpret sensory stimuli.

23

Name 3 types of Agnosia.

Tactile
Visual
Auditory

24

Where does executive function reside?

Frontal lobe

specifically: superior, middle frontal gyri, and medial frontal lobe

25

What is meant by Executive Function?

refers to all planning (motor, cognitive, emotional)

as well as regulate Affect with sensation

26

What can be termed a negative sign?

Loss of function (paralysis)

27

What can be termed a positive sign?

Abnormal function (hallucination)

28

What does the Limbic association cortex regulate?

Emotions, mood, affect, memory

(closely tied to the sense of smell)

29

What would a tumor or stroke cause if it was in the limbic system?

visual and auditory hallucinations

30

What cortex is involved in sensory integration (including interpretation), problem solving, speech, and spatial processing?

Parietotemporal Association Complex

31

What can a lesion of the non-dominant (usually right) Parietotemporal association complex cause?

Hemineglect Syndrome on the Left

(this won't effect speech because in most people it is localized in the left hemisphere)

32

Where is the Primary Motor Cortex?

The precentral gyrus

(Motor Homunculus)

33

What will a lesion in the primary motor cortex cause?

Paresis (weakness/partial paralysis) in the opposite side.

34

Where are the Premotor Cortex and the Frontal Eye Fields?

Middle Frontal Gyrus

35

Where is the Supplemental Motor Cortex?

Superior Frontal Gyrus

36

Where is Broca's area and what is its function?

Inferior Frontal Gyrus
speech planning

37

What are symptoms of Broca's Aphasia?

Normal comprehension of language, but speech expression is limited

38

Define aphasia:

language disorder

39

Define apraxia:

disorder of sensory integration causing an inability to plan and perform complex movements

40

What is the inability to carry out spontaneous movement?

Akinetic apraxia

41

What is the inability to carry out movement on command (due to inability to remember command)?

Amnestic apraxia

42

What is the inability to perform complicated motor tasks called?

Motor apraxia

43

What is the inability to demonstrate use of objects called?

Ideational apraxia

44

What is the most common Apraxia?

Facial apraxia

the inability to perform facial-oral movements on command (like lick lips)

45

What one area is consistently an asymmetry in the brain?

Wernicke's speech area

(upper surface temporal lobe)

46

What hemisphere is usually dominant/non-dominant?

Left usually dominant

47

What are some functions of the dominant hemisphere?

Language
Praxia (motor formulation)
Analytical skills (in math)
Sequential processing

48

What are some functions of the non-dominant hemisphere?

Prosody (emotion in voice)
Spatial skills (analysis, math, orientation)

49

The cells of Martinotti tend to be:

Input

50

What is astereognosis?

tactile agnosia

(inability to identify what is placed in hand without other sensory input)

51

What is homonymous hemianopia?

Loss of 1/2 of the visual field

usually affects both eyes at midline

52

What is visual agnosia?

inability to determine what one is seeing

not a deficit in acuity

53

Are conscious location of sounds and auditory agnosia located in different areas?

Yes. Agnosia is more anterior

54

Where do (nearly) all the inputs to the cerebrum first synapse?

The Thalamus

55

VPL nucleus
Type/Input/Output/Function

Sensory relay
Ascending somatosensory pathways from body
Somatosensory cortex
Relays somatosensation of body to cortex

(the homunculus processor)

56

VPM
(type/input/output/function)

Sensory relay
Somatosensory from face/taste (V, VII, IX)
Somatosensory cortex
somatosensation from face/taste to cortex

(VPM island in VPL)

57

VL
(type/input/output/function)

Motor relay
Cerebellum and basal ganglia
Motor, Premotor, Supplemental motor cortices
motor from basal ganglia/cerebellum to cortex

58

VA
(type/input/output/function)

Motor relay
Cerebellum/basal ganglia
Widespread to frontal lobes
motor from basal ganglia/cerebellum to cortex

59

P
(type/input/output/function)

Association
Sensory pathways from Tectum (visual colliculi)
Parietotemporooccipital association cortex
Behavioral orientation to visual stimulus

Pulvinar - think visual association

60

LGN
(type/input/output/function)

Sensory relay
Retina
Primary visual cortex
visual input to cortex

little tonguelike thingy

61

MGN
(type/input/output/function)

Sensory relay
Inferior colliculus
Primary auditory cortex
Auditory information to the cortex

(teeny one on the bottom)

62

MD
(type/input/output/function)

Association
Limbic structures
Frontal cortex
Emotional/memory input to cortex

63

AN
(type/input/output/function)

Association
Limbic and Hippocampus
Cingulate gyrus
relays info from limbic system

64

What are the 3 main functions of the Limbic System?

Homeostasis - Hypothalamus
Memory - hippocampus
Emotions - Amygdyla

65

What regulates Homeostasis?
(includes sex, behavior, autonomics, and endocrine)

Hypothalamus

66

What regulates memory in the limbic system?

Hippocampus

67

What regulates emotions in the limbic system?
(fear/anxiety center)

Amygdala

68

What does Fornix mean?

Arch

69

What is an important pathway that converges cognitive activities, emotional experience, and expression?

Circuit of Papez

(this is a Fornix circuit)

70

Outline the pathway of the Circuit of Papez:

Parrahippocampal gyrus > hippocampus > fornix > mammilary bodies (part of hypothalamus) > thalamus > cingulate gyrus > parahippocampal gyrus

71

What does the Stria Terminalis connect?

Amygdala and Hypothalamus

72

What connects the Amygdala with the basal ganglia, olfactory cortex, cingulate gyrus, prefontal cortex, hypothalamus, and septal nuclei?

Ventral amygdalofugal pathway

73

What structure is a diffuse group of axons that carry info between amygdala, brainstem, and hypothalamus?

Medial forebrain bundle

74

Name 7 pathologies that arise when the limbic system is damaged:

Memory loss
Olfactory dysfunction
Emotional disturbances
Autonomic and homeostatic dysfunctions
Personality changes
Changes in sexual behaviors and grooming
Seizures

75

Where is the Pituitary housed?

Sella Turcica

76

What are the two divisions of the pituitary, and what structure connects it to the Hypothalamus?

Anterior/Posterior

Pituitary stalk called the Infundibulum

77

What is the glandular division of the pituitary?

Anterior

78

What is the neural tissue division of the pituitary?

Posterior

79

Name the 6 hormones secreted/synthesized by the Anterior Pituitary.

GH
TSH
ACTH
FSH
LH
PRL

80

What other structure in the brain does the Anterior Pituitary have an endocrine relationship with and how is it connected?

Hypothalamus

Hypothalamic-Hypophysial portal system

81

Does the Posterior Pituitary make any hormones?

No! They just store hormones synthesized by neural tissue.

82

What are 2 hormones secreted by the Posterior Pituitary?

Vasopressin (aka - ADH)
Oxytocin

83

Pretty much every hormone in the Anterior Pituitary is mediated/controlled by hormones in the:

Hypothalamus

84

What is the most anterior region of the hypothalamus and what does it contain?

Preoptic region

contains medial and lateral preoptic nuclei

85

What are the 6 nuclei in the Supraoptic (anterior) region of the hypothalamus?

Periventricular nucleus
Paraventricular nuc.
Anterior nuc.
Suprachiasmatic nuc.
Supraoptic nuc.
Lateral hypothalamic nuc.

86

What 5 nuclei make up the middle (tuberal) region of the hypothalamus?

Periventricular
Arcuate (infundibular)
Dorsomedial
Ventromedial
Lateral hypothalamic

87

What 3 nuclei make up the Posterior (mammilary) region of the Hypothalamus?

Posterior nuc.
Mammilary body
Lateral hypothalamic nucleus

88

Name 3 functions of the Hypothalamus:

Regulate circadian rhythms
Appetite/thirst
Thermoregulation

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