Head and Neck week 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Head and Neck week 1 Deck (290):
1

What 3 layers of the scalp move as a unit, and where is the vasculature found?

Skin
Connective Tissue (this is where vasculature is found)
Aponeurosis

2

What are the 5 layers of the scalp?

Skin, CT, Aponeurosis
Loose CT, Pericranium

3

What are the 6 nerves that innervate the cutaneous scalp?

3 Branches Trigeminal (V1, V2, V3)
Lesser Occipital nerve
Greater Occipital n.
Third Occipital n.

4

What are the 2 internal carotid branches?

Supraorbital (branch of ophthalmic a.)
Supratrochlear (branch of ophthalmic a.)

5

What are the 3 external carotid branches?

Superficial temporal
Posterior auricular
Occipital

6

In the brain, what are the 2 layers of dura mater?

Periosteal layer
Meningeal layer

7

What layer of meninges is filled with CSF in the brain?

The Arachnoid

8

The perioseal layer in the dura is continuous with what structure?

The periosteum of the cranium.

9

The meningeal layer of the dura is continuous with...

The spinal dura mater.

10

Where does the Dura Mater of the spinal cord fuse with the periosteal layer in the skull cavity?

Inferior cranial cavity

11

What layer of Dura make up the reflections (infoldings) in the brain?

The meningeal layer

12

Name 4 reflections of Dura in the brain.

Falx Ceribri
Falx Cerebelli
Tentorium Cerebelli
Sellar Diaphragm

13

The Straight Sinus defines the border between...

Falx Cerebri and Tentorium Cerebelli

14

What lines the inside of the dural reflections of the brain?

Endothelium

15

The endothelial layer in the sinuses separate what two layers?

The periosteal layer and the meningeal layer
(draw it out)

16

What is the function of the Dural Sinuses

Drain blood, CSF, diploic veins

17

What is the terminal drain of the dural sinuses?

The Jugular vein

18

Trace the sinuses leading into and out of the Confluence of the Sinuses.

Superior saggital sinus from the tom
Inferior saggital sinus > Straight Sinus
then, Confluence
then, two Transverse sinuses > Sigmoid Sinus
Finally, Jugular vein

19

Name 4 singular sinuses.

Superior saggital
Inferior saggital
Straight
Occipital

20

Name 6 paired sinuses.

Cavernous
Intercavernous (ant and post)
Superior petrosal
Inferior petrosal
Transverse
Sigmoid

21

What does the Straight sinus divide?

The Falx cerebri and the Tentorium cerebelli

22

What sinus contains the internal carotid artery and several nerves?

Cavernous

23

T/F
Scalp, bone, and dura do not have sensory innervations.

False.

24

What nerves innervate the Dura?

Trigeminal (V1, V2, V3)
Vagus - CN X
Dorsal roots of cervical nerves C1-C3

25

What arteries feeds the Dura?

Middle meningeal a. (frontal and parietal branches)
Occipital a. (mastoid branch

26

What structure releases CSF into dural sinuses?

Arachnoid Granulations

27

What fluid is in the dural sinuses?

CSF and blood

28

Where is the CSF layer thin?

Everywhere except the Cisterns.

29

What is the epidural space?

Where the dura meets the inside of the skull.
Not filled with anything

30

What is the subdural space?

Where the Dura meets the Arachnoid layer.
Not filled with anything

31

What is the Subarachnoid space?

Space between the Arachnoid layer and the Pia Mater of the brain. Filled with CSF.

32

Pathology of Epidural space.

Epidural Hematoma

33

Pathology of Subdural space.

Subdural Hematoma

34

Pathology of Subarachnoid space.

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

35

Where is CSF produced?

Choroid Plexus cells in the Lateral Ventricles.

36

What do the ventricles of the brain contain?

CSF

37

Describe the flow of CSF in the brain.

Choroid Plexus > Ventricles > Subarachnoid space > Arachnoid granulations > dural Sinuses > Internal Jugular vein

38

Name the 3 ventricles of the brain.

Two lateral (in cerebral hemispheres)
Third Ventricle (diencephalon)
Fourth Ventricle (between pons, medulla, cerebellum)

39

What structure drains CSF from the Third ventricle into the Fourth ventricle?

Cerebral aqueduct of Sylvias

40

What structures drain CSF into the subarachnoid space?

2 lateral apertures & 1 median aperture
(in fourth ventricle)

41

What are some functions of the CSF?

Supports brain, nutrients, gas exchange.

42

What is the function of the Choroid Plexus?

Produces CSF

43

From whence does the blood supply of the brain come?

Internal carotid and vertebral arteries.

44

From posterior to anterior, name the structures of the Circle of Willis.

Vertebral aa. (2) > Basilar a. > Posterior Cerebral aa. > Posterior communicating aa. > Internal Carotid aa. > Anterior cerebral aa. > Anterior communicating aa.

45

What is the one thing missing from the following:
Vertebral aa. (2) > Basilar a. > Posterior Cerebral aa. > Posterior communicating aa. > Internal Carotid aa. > Anterior cerebral aa. > Anterior communicating aa.

Middle cerebral a.
(next to internal carotid aa.)

46

Generally the flow in the Circle of Willis goes what direction?

Posterior to anterior
main outlets are Middle cerebral a. and
Posterior cerebral artery

47

What makes up the Zygomatic Arch?

The Temporal process of the Zygomatic &
The Zygomatic process of the Temporal

48

What is the Glabella?

Third Eye

49

What is the Bregma?

Where Parietal/Frontal come together.
(technically very Top of skull)

50

What makes up the nasal septum?

The perpendicular plate of the Ethmoid and the Vomer

51

What are the alveolar processes in the maxilla?

Bumps that make room for teeth

52

What bone makes up the Inferior Nasal Concha?

The Inferior Nasal Concha bone

53

Where is the Pterygoid hamulus?

It is a projection of the medial plate of the pterygoid process on its inferior end
(broken off in my skull)

54

Where is the Scaphoid fossa?

Between the medial and lateral pterygoid plates.

55

What does Crista Galli mean?

Crest of the rooster

56

What does the Perpendicular plate of the Ethmoid join with?

The Vomer

57

What is the area of the ethmoid with concentrated lacunae?

Cribiform plate

58

The Superior and Middle Conchae are part of what bone?

The Ethmoid

59

Where is the Lamboid suture?

Between occipital and parietals

60

Where is the Squamous suture?

Between parietal and temporal bones

61

What is the "H" shaped suture between the coronal, sphenofrontal, squamous, and sphenosquamous sutures?

Pterion

62

Where is the Canine Fossa?

Indentation between inferior border of the orbit to the upper canine.

63

Where is the Maxillary Tuberosity?

Behind last molars of the maxilla.

64

What bone is the mastoid process and styloid process a part of?

Temporal (bony)

65

What lines the external acoustic meatus?

Tympanic plate

66

Where is the mandibular fossa?

Articulation point of mandible

67

The anterior part of the TMJ rises to the...

Articular eminence

68

What space does the superior orbital fissure communicate with?

The Cavernous Sinus

69

T/F
The inferior orbital fissure communicates with the same space as the superior orbital fissure.

FALSE
Inferior orbital fissure communicates with the Pterygomaxillary Fissure with communicates with the pterygopalatine fossa.

70

Name four nerves that go through the superior orbital fissure.

CN III
CN IV
CN V - 1
CN VI

71

What nerve passes through the Supraorbital Notch?

Supraorbital n.
(from Frontal n. > From V1)

72

What goes through the Optic Canal?

The Optic n.
CN II

73

The zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal foramen are derived from what nerve?

V2

74

What nerve emerges from the infraorbital foramen and from where is it derived?

The Infraorbital n. from V2

75

What is in the infraorbital groove?

Inraorbital n.

76

Where is the Pterygoid fovea?

medial and inferior to the mandibular condyle on the anterior surface

77

Where is the Lingula?

Just anterior to the mandibular foramen

78

Where is the Mylohyoid groove?

groove extending down and anterior to the mandibular foramen

79

Where is the Mylohyoid line?

Angled line bordering thicker bone below the molars on the interior of the mandible

80

Retromolar area

Behind last mandibular molar

81

Where is the mental protuberance?

Midline mandible

82

What are the genial (mental) tubercles?

Spines coming up from lower part of mid-mandible

83

What are the contents of the mental foramen?

The mental n.
branches further into the inferior Denta branches

84

Where is the mandibular foramen, what nerve goes through, and what nerve comes after?

Interior and posterior mandible.
Mandibular n. > Inferior alveolar n.

85

Where are the nuchal lines?

Lateral to the occipital protuberance
(superior and inferior)

86

Where is the digastric notch?

Medial side of the Mastoid process
(deep groove)

87

What are the choane?

Medial to the pterygoid process of the sphenoid.
(swallowing and breathing canal)

88

What is bigger, the pterygoid or the scaphoid fossa?

The Pterygoid.
Scaphoid is smaller, superior, medial

89

Where is the spine of the Sphenoid bone?

Just medial to the TMJ
Very sharp

90

Where is the pharyngeal tubercle?

Just anterior Foramen Magnum as bone slope upwards

91

Where are the greater and lesser palatine foramen?

Medial to molars on hard palate.

92

Where is the Stylomastoid Foramen?

Directly posterior to the styloid process

93

Describe the Pterygoid Canal and the Pharyngeal canal.

Both are small canals located lateral to the Vomer on the sphenoid

94

Where is the Infratemporal fossa?

Below zygomatic arch

95

What is the home of V3 and all things mandibular?

The Infratemporal Fossa

96

Name four ways into the Infratemporal Fossa.

Foramen Ovale
Foramen Spinosum
Inferior Orbital Fissure
Pterygomaxillary Fissure

97

Where is the home of V2 and all things Maxillary?

Pterygopalatine fossa

98

Name 6 things that communicate with the Pterygopalatine Fossa?

Pterygomaxillary fissure
Foramen Rotundum
Sphenopalatine foramen
Palatine canal (foramen)
Inferior Orbital Fissure
Pterygoid/Pharyngeal canals

99

What does the Sphenopalatine foramen connect?

The pterygomaxillary fissure to the nose

100

What are the 3 main fossae of the internal cranium?

Anterior, Middle, Posterior

101

What's the border of the middle and posterior fossae of the cranial cavity?

Petrous ridge

102

What foramen in the middle cranial fossa is an artifact?

Foramen lacerum

103

Where is the hypoglossal canal?

Just lateral to the foramen magnum

104

Describe a cranial Motor pathway.

UMN & LMN
LMN cell body is in brain and exits CNS to target.

105

Where are the cell bodies in sensory Cranial Nerves?

In PNS Ganglia
(1st order sensory neuron, and ganglia are just like dorsal root ganglia)

106

Describe a parasympathetic pathway of a cranial nerve.

UPM > LMN > exits brain (this LMN is pre-ganglionic) > synapse on or near the target > Post-gangliionic neuron

107

What cranial nerves have a parasympathetic function?

III, VII, IX, and X

108

What are CNS nuclei?

Site of cell bodies and synapses.
Group of neuronal cells sharing same function and in the same area.

109

What are the 4 cranial nerves with Somatic Motor functions?

III, IV, VI, and XII
(think eye and tongue)

110

Name the 5 cranial nerves with Branchial Motor innervations.

V, VII, IX, X, XI

111

What cranial nerves have Parasympathetic functions?

III, VII, IX, X

112

What is the target of the visceral efferent (Parasympathetic) functions of CN III, VII, IX, and X?

Constricor pupillae muscles and ciliary muscles
Lacrimal gland, submandibular/sublingual glands
Parotid gland
Pharynx, Larynx, thorax, abdomen smooth muscle/glands

113

Name the cranial nerves with a General Sensory function.

V, VII, IX, X

114

What cranial nerves have a special sensory function?

I, II, VII, IX, VIII, X

115

What special sensory characteristics to cranial nerves I, II, VII, IX, VIII and X have?

Smell
Sight
Taste (ant 2/3 tongue)
Taste (post 1/3 tongue)
Hearing/balance
Taste

116

Which nerves have a Visceral Sensory function, and what tissues are involved?

IX and X
Parotid gland, carotid body, middle ear
pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Heart
esophagus, stomach, intestines

117

Name all the Cranial Nerves:

ooh, ooh, ooh, to touch and feel van gough's vagina, AH!
Olfactory, Optic, Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens, Facial, Vestibulochoclear, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus, Accessory, Hypoglossal

118

Where is the origination of a branched nerve?

At the branching

119

A named nerve, originating at a branch, still has a...

pathway

120

explain the pathway of the Olfactory n.

Best seen inferior on the brain. Travels out and connects to the Cribiform plate.

121

Explain the pathway of the Optic n.

Travels through optic chiasma, optic canal, and into the eye.

122

What function do the olfactory and optic nn. have?

Special Sensory

123

What are the 2 functions of the Oculomotor n.?

Somatic motor
Parasympathetic (visceral motor)

124

Oculomotor (CN III) somatic pathway:

Cavernous sinus > Superior orbital fissure > 2 divisions
(Superior and Inferior division)

125

Oculomotor (CN III) Parasympathetic pathway:

Cavernous sinus > Superior orbital fissure > pre-ganglionic synapse in ciliary ganglion > post-ganglionic nn. called short ciliary nn. > eyeball > ciliary muscles an pupillae muscles.

126

Trochlear (CN IV) pathway:

Cavernous sinus > Superior orbital fissure > superior oblique m.

127

Trigeminal (CN V) V1 pathway:

Trigeminal ganglion in the cavernous sinus > superior orbital fissure > orbit > sensory nn. branch

128

Trigeminal (CN V) V2 pathway:

Trigeminal ganglion in the cavernous sinus > Foramen Rotundum > Pterygopalatine Fossa >
(Branches to Orbit and Palate)
(Orbital branch) > Inferior orbital fissure > Infraorbital canal > Infra orbital foramen >

129

Trigeminal (CN V) V3 sensory pathway:

Trigeminal ganglion in the cavernous sinus > Foramen Ovale > Infratemporal fossa > Mandibular foramen > mandibular canal > Mental Foramen

130

Trigeminal (CN V) V3 Branchial Motor pathway:

Cavernous sinus > Foramen Ovale > Infratemporal Fossa > Branches to mm.

131

Abducens (CN VI) pathway:

Cavernous sinus > Superior orbital fissure > lateral rectus m.

132

Facial (CN VII) Branchial motor pathways:

Internal acoustic meatus > Facial canal > Stylomastoid Foramen > branches to facial expression mm.

Internal acoustic meatus > facial canal > middle ear > Stapedius m.

133

Facial (CNVII) Parasympathetic pathways:

Internal acoustic meatus > facial canal > Greater Petrosal n. > pterygoid canal > pterygopalatine fossa > PterygoPalatine Ganglion > then, 1) inferior orbital fissure > lacrimal gland or, 2) sphenopalatine foramen > mucous glands nose/palate

Internal acoustic meatus > facial canal > Chorda Tympani n. > Middle Earl > Petrotympatic Fissure > Infratemporal fossa > rides with lingual n. of V3 > Submandibular Ganglion > submandibular/sublingual glands

134

Facial (CNVII) General Sensory pathway:

Internal acoustic meatus > Geniculate Ganglion in the facial canal > stylomastoid foramen > small parts by the ear

135

Facial (CNVII) Special Sensory pathway:

Internal acoustic meatus > Geniculate Ganglion in the facial canal > Chorda Tympani n. > middle ear > Petrotympanic Fissure > Infratemporal Fossa > rides with lingual n. V3 > ant. 2/3 tongue

136

Vestibulocochlear (CNVIII) function:

Hearing & Balance

137

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) functions / innervations:

Branchial motor : stylopharyngeus
General sensory (2) : tongue/pharynx & tympanic
Visceral sensory : carotid body/sinus
Special sensory : post 1/3 tongue
Parasympathetic (visceral motor) : parotid gland

138

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) Branchial pathway:

jugular foramen > stylopharyngeus m.

139

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) General Sensory pathways:

jugular foramen > Glossopharyngeal Ganglia (sup/inf) > tongue/pharynx

jugular foramen > Glossopharyngeal Ganglia (sup/inf) > tympanic canal > middle ear > tympanic plexus > branches

(NOTE: this is the ONE OF TWO that goes out, then back into the Cranial Cavity)

140

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) Visceral Sensory pathway:

jugular foramen > superior and inferior glossopharyngeal ganglia > carotid body/sinus

141

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) Special Sensory pathway:

jugular foramen > sup/inf glossopharyngeal ganglia > Posterior 1/3 Tongue

142

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) Parasympathetic pathway:

jugular foramen > tympanic canal > middle ear > tympanic plexus > Lesser Petrosal n. > Foramen Ovale > infratemporal fossa > Otic Ganglion > join V3 > parotid gland

(this is 2nd that goes out/in. BUT, this one goes out again)

143

Name the functions of the Vagus n.

Branchial
Parasympathetic
Visceral sensory
Special sensory

144

Vagus n. (X) Branchial pathway:

Jugular foramen > muscles

145

What 3 general areas do the branchial motor pathway of the vagus nerve innervate?

Pharynx
Palate
Larynx

146

Vagus (CN X) parasympathetic pathway:

jugular foramen > ganglion synapse on or near organ > gland/organ

147

Vagus (CN X) general sensory pathway:

jugular foramen > Vagal Ganglion > target organ

148

Vagus (CN X) visceral sensory pathway:

jugular foramen > Vagal Ganglion > thorax/abdomen

149

Vagus (CN X) special sensory pathway:

jugular foramen > Vagal Ganglion > Epiglottis

150

Accessory (CN XI) pathway:

Foramen Magnum > jugular foramen > trapezius and SCM

This is a Branchial Motor pathway

151

Hypoglossal (CN XII) pathway:

Hypoglossal Canal > mm.

152

What function does CN XII have?

Somatic Motor

153

What defines the root (bottom) of the neck?
(junction of thorax/neck)

1st Rib, T1 vertebrae, manubrium of sternum

154

How many layers of superficial fascia are there in the neck?

One

155

Name 3 types of deep fascia of the neck?

Thyroid
Carotid
Vertebral

156

What type of fascia envelopes the Trapezius and SCM?

Investing Fascia

157

What type of fascia surrounds the Trachea?

Pre-tracheal fascia

158

Does pre-tracheal fascia envelope mm.?

no

159

What fascia envelopes vertebrae and mm.?

Prevertebral

160

What is composed of all three fascia layers?

Carotid fascia

161

What 3 structures does the carotid fascia surround?

Carotid a.
Internal Jugular v.
Vagus n.

162

The SCM, working unilaterally, does what to the head?

Pulls the head up and in the opposite direction.

This is because its upper attachment is so lateral to its lower.

163

What are the 2 main triangles of the neck?

Posterior
Anterior

164

What are the borders of the posterior triangle of the neck

SCM
Trapezius
Clavicle

165

What is the roof and floor of the posterior triangle of the neck?

Roof: Skin, superficial fascia
Floor: Prevertebral fascia

166

What are the 5 mm. in the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck?

Spenius capitus
Levator scapulae
posterior scalene
middle scalene
anterior scalene

167

What muscle divides the posterior triangle?

Omohyoid

168

What are the two sub-triangles of the posterior triangle?

Occipital triangle
Supraclavicular triangle

169

What are the borders of the anterior triangle of the neck?

Midline, SCM, inferior border of the mandible

170

What are the 4 subtriangles that make up the anterior triangle?

Submental
Submandibular
Carotid
Muscular (omotracheal)

171

Which anterior subtriangle is NOT bilateral?

Submental
(this is a midline structure)

172

What is the difference between thyroid and cricoid cartilage?

Thyroid - forms prominence
Cricoid - forms complete rings

173

What muscle lies in the Superficial Cervical Fascia?

Platysma muscle

174

In addition to the Trapezius and SCM mm. what does Investing Fascia encapsulate?

Parotid and Submandibular glands.

175

T/F Pretrachial Fascia envelopes muscles.

False

176

What type of fascia is Pretrachial fascia continuous with?

Buccopharyngeal fascia

177

What type of fascia envelopes vertebrae and muscles?

Prevertebral

178

What structure in the neck is composed from all three fascial layers?

Carotid Sheath

179

What muscle separates the posterior from the ant. triangle?

SCM

180

What are the 5 FLOOR muscles of the Posterior Triangle of the neck?

Splenius Capitus
Levator Scapulae
Posterior Scalene
Middle Scalene
Anterior Scalene

181

Where is the splenius capitus?

Superior muscle, fibers run crosswise with Traps

182

What's the origin/insertion of the Levator Scapulae?

Dorsal parts of C1-4 to Scapula

183

What 3 muscles make up the inferior lateral portion of the posterior triangle?

Scalenes

184

What triangles does the Omohyoid separate?

The Occipital and the Supraclavicular

185

What muscle originates in superficial fascia of deltoid/pectoral and inserts on inferior border of mandible?

Platysma

186

What n. innervates the Platysma?

CN VII - facial

187

What muscle in the neck should be considered part of facial expression?

Platysma

188

Innervation of SCM?

Spinal Accessory (XI)

189

General O/I for Splenius Capitus?

Lower c-spine > Mastoid process

190

From the spine, the splenius capitus runs _____ and the trapezius runs _____

Up
Down

191

Wha innervates the splenius capitus?

Cervical spinal nn.

192

General O/I for Levator Scapulae?

Upper c-spine to scapula

193

What innervates the Levator Scapulae?

Dorsal Scapular n.

194

General O/I for Scalenes?

Transverse processes of cervical spine > 2nd and 1st rib

195

What are the two actions of the scalenes?

Lateral flexion and aid in forced inspiration by lifting ribs

196

What innervates the scalenes?

C3-C8

197

What m. is part of the roof of the Anterior Triangle?

Platysma

198

What makes up the floor of the Anterior triangle?

pharynx, larynx, and thyroid

199

Name the 4 triangles of the Anterior triangle.

Submental
Submandibular
Carotid
Muscular (omotracheal)

200

What makes up the border of the submental triangle?

Anterior digastric mm. with the hyoid bone

201

What muscle attaches to the interior of the mandible and comprises the mm. in the submental and submandibular triangles?

Mylohyoid

202

What forms the boundaries of the Submandibular triangle?

Anterior and Posterior Digastric mm. with jawline

203

What makes up the Carotid triangle?

Posterior Digastric
SCM
Omohyoid

204

What makes up the Muscular triangle?

Omohyoid
SCM
Sternohyoid (which is the midline)

205

What are the 4 Infrahyoid mm.?

Omohyoid
Sternohyoid
Sternothyroid
Thyrohyoid

206

What are the 5 Suprahyoid mm.?

Ant. Digastric
Post. Digastric
Mylohyoid
Stylohyoid
Geniohyoid

207

What are the Actions and Innervations of the:
Omohyoid
Sternohyoid
Sternothyroid
Thyrohyoid

Depresses Hyoid, Larynx, or both

C1-C3 spinal nn. EXCEPT Thyrohyoid, which is innervated by Hypoglossal (XII)

208

What are the functions of the Suprahyoid mm.?

Elevate hyoid bone (& floor of mouth/base of tongue)

209

Innervations of the Suprahyoid mm.

Post. Digastric CNVII
Stylohyoid CNVII
Ant. Digastric V3
Mylohyoid V3
Geniohyoid C1

210

Name 4 Prevertebral mm. in the posterior that aren't considered part of the floor.

Longus coli
Longus capitus
Rectus capitus anterior
Rectus capitus lateralis

211

Innervation/Action of 4 Prevertebral posterior mm.

C1-C8
Head flexion

212

General O/I for longus coli.

C3-T3 > Ant. Atlas and C3-C5

213

General O/I for longus capitus

C3-6 > Base of skull

214

O/I for:
Rectus capitus anterior

Atlas > Base of skull/foramen magnum

215

O/I for:
Rectus capital lateralis

Atlas > Occipital bone

216

What cranial nerves innervate the neck?

IX, X, XI, XII

217

What spinal nerves make up the brachial plexus?

C5-T1

218

What spinal nerves make up the cervical plexus?

C1-4

219

What two mm. does the Brachial plexus emerge between?

Anterior and Middle Scalenes

220

What branches does the Glossopharyngeal n. have in the neck?

Submandibular and Carotid

221

What does the branchiomotor function of the Glossopharyngeal n. innervate?

Stylopharyngeus m.

222

What 3 things does the visceral sensory function of the Glossopharyngeal innervate?

Pharynx
Chemoreceptor (carotid body - regulates heart rate and respiration)
Baroreceptor (carotid sinus - regulates BP)

223

T/F
The vagus n. travels through the carotid triangle.

True

224

What are the 3 main branches of the vagus n. ?

Pharyngeal
Superior laryngeal
Recurrent Laryngeal

225

What are the 2 functions of the Superior laryngeal branch of the vagus n.?

Internal laryngeal n. - larynx General Sensory
External laryngeal n. - branchial motor (1 m.)

226

T/F
The Recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus n. is bilaterally symetrical

False

227

What does the Left/Right side of the Laryngeal n. loop under?

Left: Aortic arch
Right: Subclavian

228

What 2 neck mm. does the Accessory n. innervate?

SCM and Traps

229

What is the pathway of CN XI to the SCM and traps?

Foramen magnum > Jugular foramen > mm.

230

What triangles does CN XII pass through?

Anterior triangle > Submandibular triangle

231

How does the Hypoglossal n. get to the tongue?

Between the Mylogyoid and Hyoglossus mm.

232

Does CN XII have any innervations in the neck?

No

233

Deep to the ______ is a bundle of nerves called the ______

SCM
Cervical Plexus

234

What division of the Cervical Plexus supplies 3 of 4 Infrahyoid mm.?

Ansa Cervicalis (C1-3)

235

What are the roots of the Cervical Plexus?

Ventral Rami of C1-4

236

What suprahyoid and infrahyoid mm. does the cervical plexus innervate?

Suprahyoid - only the Geniohyoid
Infrahyoid (ALL) - Omo, Sterno, Thyrohyoid plus Sternothyroid

237

What are the Cutaneous Sensory nn. of the Cervical Plexus?

Lesser Occipital
Greater Auricular
Transverse cervical
Supraclavicular

238

Which cutaneous sensory n. in the cervical plexus innervates the anterior neck?

Transverse cervical

239

Which cutaneous n. of the cervical plexus has sensory innervation of the posterior ear, neck, and scalp?

Lesser Occipital

240

Which n. does C1 ride with?

They Hypoglossal (CN XI)

241

The RCL & RCA are innervated by what nerves?

C1 & C2

242

T/F
The RCL and RCA are associates with the Ansa Cervicalis.

False
Deep branch not associated with Ansa

243

What nerves innervate the Longus Coli?

C1-8

244

Innervation Middle scalene?

C3-4

245

T/F
C5 is NOT in the cervical plexus

True

246

How many sympathetic chain ganglia are in the cervical region and what are they called?

3
Inferior ganglion - C7-8
Middle - C5-6
Superior C1-4

247

Which of the three sympathetic cervical ganglion is the biggest? which is smallest?

Superior
Middle

248

Do cervical sympathetic ganglia have white communicating rami?

NO

249

Innervations:
Longus Coli
Levator Scapulae
Ant. Scalene
Middle Scalene
Post. Scalene

C1-3
C2-8
C3-5
C5-8
C3-4
C5-8
(trends: high, low, length)

250

What is the Splenius Capitus innervated by?

Dorsal rami of the cervical nn.

251

T/F
ALL the infrahyoid muscles are innervated via the Ansa Cervicalis.

True

252

On which side of the body is the brachiocephalic trunk?

Right

253

Where does the Subclavian a. divide into three parts?

Anterior Scalene

254

What are the first three branches (making up the 1st part) of the Subclavian a.?

Vertebral a.
Internal thoracic a.
Thyrocervical trunk a.

255

What are the 3 divisions of the Thyrocervical Trunk?

Suprascapular a.
Transverse Cervical a.
Inferior thyroid a.

256

What are 3 divisions of the Inferior Thyroid a. ?

Ascending cervical branch
Inferior laryngeal branch
Pharyngeal branch

257

What makes up the 2nd part of the Subclavian branches?

Costocervical trunk
Divides into the Deep cervical a.
and the Superior intercostal a.

258

What are the two major branches off the brachiocephalic trunk?

The Subclavian and Common Carotid

259

From whence does the Common Carotid come on the left side?

Branches right out of the Aortic Arch

260

Where are the chemo and baro-receptors from the Glossopharyngeal n. located on the Common Carotid?

Near the bifurcation between Common and Internal branches.

261

T/F
The internal carotid does not branch before the head.

True

262

Name the 6 branches of the External Carotid in ascending order.

Superior Thyroid a.
Lingual a.
Facial a.
Occipital a.
Ascending pharyngeal a.
Posterior auricular a.

263

What is the only medial branch off the External Carotid?

Pharyngeal

264

Name 2 branches of the Superior Thyroid a.

Muscular branches
Superior laryngeal a.

265

Name 3 branches of the Facial a.

Ascending palatine a.
Tonsilar a.
Glandular branches

266

Popular Question:
What are the terminating branches (incidentally, not part of the six major branches) of the External Carotid a.?

Maxillary a.
Superficial Temporal a.

267

What branch of the External Carotid goes through the posterior triangle of the neck?

Occipital a.

268

Generally, the ______a. goes posterior and the ______a. goes anterior

Subclavian
External Carotid

269

What is the venous pathway exiting the cranium?

Internal Jugular > jugular foramen > External Jugular v. subclavian v. > Brachiocephalic v. > Superior Vena Cava

270

What are the 4 main superficial external veins of the head and neck?

Superficial temporal v.
Retromandibular v.
Posterior auricular v.
External jugular v.

271

What forms the Retromandibular v.

Superficial temporal and the Maxillary vv.

272

What forms the External jugular v.?

Posterior Auricular and Retromandibular

273

Besides the cranial cavity, what does the Internal Jugular v. drain?

Infratemporal region, then
facial
lingual
pharyngeal
thyroid

274

What structure located in the carotid triangle does the internal jugular v. pass through?

Carotid sheath

275

What does the internal jugular v. ultimately drain in to?

Joins with the Subclavian to form the Brachiocephalic v.

276

What does the common facial v. drain in to?

Internal jugular v.

277

In what layer is the Anterior jugular v.?

superficial cervical fascia

278

Name all the jugular vv.

Anterior, Internal, External

279

What are the 3 layers of Cervical Viscera?

Superficial endocrine layer
Middle respiratory layer
Deep alimentary layer

280

What is the largest endocrine gland, what does it produce, and where is it located?

Thyroid gland
Calcitonin
Superficial layer cervical viscera

281

Describe the arterial, venous, and nerve supply to the thyroid.

Superior & Inferior thyroid aa. (carotid/subclavian)
superior, middle, inferior thyroid vv.
Cervical sympathetic ganglia

282

T/F
Parathyroid and thyroid glands get blood, lymph, and nerves the same way.

True

283

What makes up the middle layer of the cervical viscera?

Larynx and Trachea

284

What are the 2 structures that make up the deep layer of cervical viscera?

Pharynx and esophagus

285

Lymph from the Right side of the head and neck drains into the:

Right lymphatic duct
(then onto the right subclavian v.)

286

Lymph fromt the Left side of the head and neck drains into the:

Thoracic duct
(then left lymphatic duct and into left subclavian v.)

287

Where are the two horizontal rings of nodes located?

Horizontal superficial is around the neck/head border.
Horizontal deep ring is around the visceral structures.

288

What vertical structures run down the horizontal rings?

Deep cervical (jugular) trunk
aka - Common Right lymphatic duct &
Left side Thoracic duct

289

Name the 6 lymph nodes of the Superficial Horizontal Ring:

Submental
Submandibular
Parotid superficial
Parotid deep
Retroauricular
Occipital

290

What are the 5 nodes of the Deep Horizontal Ring:

Retropharyngeal
Paratracheal
Pre-tracheal
Pre-laryngeal
Infrahyoid

Decks in Tim's Cards Class (140):