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Flashcards in Reproduction Test 1 Deck (60):
1

Name the Homologues:
Testes

Penis

Scrotum

Spongy Urethra

Prostate

Ovaries

Clitoris

Labia majora

Labia minora

Skeens gland

2

Name the homologues:
Cowper's glands

Bladder

Urethra

Bartholin's glands

Bladder

Urethra, Lower vagina

3

Name the Homologues:
Ovaries

Clitoris

Labia majora

Labia minora

Skeens gland

Testes

Penis

Scrotum

Spongy Urethra

Prostate

4

Name the homologues:
Bartholin's glands

Bladder

Urethra, Lower vagina

Cowper's glands

Bladder

Urethra

5

Name the homologues of the Gonads:

Testes

Ovaries

6

Name the homologues of the Genital tubercle:

Penis

Clitoris

7

Name the homologues of the Urethral swellings:

Scrotum

Labia majora

8

Name the homologues of the Urethral folds:

Spongy urethra

Labia minora

9

Name the 4 homologues of the Urogenital sinus:

Prostate - Skeens glands

Cowper's glands - Bartholin's glands

Bladder - Bladder

Urethra - Urethra, L vagina

10

Name 2 glands that have lubricative function inside the labia minora?

Skeens

Bartholins

11

The paramesonephric ducts are called what in females?

In males?

Mullerian ducts

Wolffian ducts

12

What do the paramesonephric ducts develop into in females?
(4 things)

Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, inner 1/3 vagina

13

The anterior (distal) 2/3 of the Vagina develops from what?

Urogenital sinus

14

What developmental structure becomes the Clitoris and the Head of the Penis?

Genital tubercle

15

What is the sex determining region on the Y chromosome?

What part of the Y chromosome is the found on?

SRY gene

Short arm

16

In the absence of the _____, female development is established.

SRY (Sex determining region - Y chromo)

17

What is the testis-determining factor?

SRY

18

Where do germ cells first develop?

Where do they migrate?

Where does migration terminate?

Wall of yolk sac - near allantois

Along mesentery of hindgut

Gonadal ridges
(then penetrate into the primitive gonad)

19

What forms the primitive sex cords?

Genital ridge epithelial proliferation

*penetrates underlying mesenchyme

20

What do sex cords mature into in females?

Follicles

21

What defines Imperforate Hymen of the neonate?

Mucocolpos

*white membrane

22

What is a common complication of the Mucocolpos seen in Imperforate Hymen of the neonate?

Urethral compression leads to infection/obstruction

23

Describe Adolescent Imperforate Hymen.
(3 things)

Primary Amenorrhea (no period)

Absent Secondary Sex characteristics

Cyclic pain


24

What are 4 consequences of Adolescent Imperforate Hymen?

Hematometrocolpos (bluish, distended)

Endometriosis

Hematosalpinx

Pyocolpos (ascending infection)

25

What drug can cause Vaginal Adenosis (glandular disease) in the daughters of users?

DES - Diethylstilbesterol

*exposed in utero
**used to prevent miscarriage

26

At the level of the tissue, what has occurred in Vaginal Adenosis due to DES exposure?

Squamous epithelium never replaces Glandular developmental epithelium

(latter epithelium resembles that of endocervix, fallopian tube, endometrium)

*red, granular patches - usually disappear as woman ages

27

99% of time DES causes....

Minority of time causes...

Vaginal Adenosis

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of vagina

28

Malpositioning of the 2 paramesonephric ducts leads to what 3 types of Uterine Malformations?

Bicornis (septate) Uterus
(wall in middle - didn't degenerate)

Uterus Didelphys
(double uterus, double vagina)

Uterus Septae
(partial septum)

29

Describe normal cervical histology:

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

30

Describe the normal Vaginal mucosa:

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Connective tissue

Transverse folds called Rugae

31

What type of muscle is in the Vagina?

Smooth

32

Why does the vaginal mucosa contain large amounts of glycogen?

Biotics metabolize and maintain low pH through creation of organic acids

33

Name 4 components of the Vulva:

Mons pubis - covered with pubic hair

Labia majora - adipose and sweat glands

Labia minora - no sweat, many sebaceous glands

Clitoris - erectile, exposed glans

34

What gland is found in the vestibule between the labia minora?

Skenes Glands - mucous secreting

*homologues to Prostate

35

What 2 small glands are found on either side of the vaginal orifice that produce secretions during sex?

Bartholin's glands

*homologue to Bulbourethral/Cowpers glands

36

What are the 2 layers of the Endometrium?

Which is proliferative?

Which is shed?

Stratum Functionalis (shed)

Stratum Basalis (proliferative)

**Basalis regenerates the Functionalis

37

What is the capsule of collagenous connective tissue immediately deep to the germinal epithelia in Ovaries?

Tunica Albuginea

38

What type of mature ovum and its surrounding tissues secrete estrogen within the ovary?

Graafian Follicle

39

A Graafian follicle represents what stage of maturity within the Ovary?

Most mature

40

Both vulvar and vaginal cancers tend to affect what demographic?

Older women

41

Vulvar cancers (making up 3% of all GYN cancers) are almost always what type?

Vaginal cancers (making up 2% of GYN cancers) are 90% what type?

Squamous cell carcinomas

Squamous cel carcinomas

42

Carcinoma in Situ precedes invasive ________ in Vulva carcinoma

Vulval Intraepithelial Neoplasia

43

How does carcinoma of the Vulva usually present?

Gross inspection wart-like, slightly raised mucosal lesions/ulcers

44

Preneoplastic lesions of the Vulva may lead to what invasive cancer?

Leukoplakia

45

If vaginal tumor is confined (Stage I), what is the 5 year survival rate?

What is the 5 year survival rate if it spreads (Stage IV)?

80%

20%

46

What are the 4 risk factors for Cervical squamous cell carcinoma?

Sexual intercourse early

Multiple sex partners

HPV

Other STI's - Herpes, Syphylis (environmental)

47

What is the most common cause of death in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix?

Renal Failure

*from Urinary tract obstruction

48

What is the median age of diagnosis of Cervical carcinoma?

What is the median age of CIS?

50

35

49

What is the location of the Skenes Glands?

Location Bartholins glands?

What are the alternative names to these glands?

Either side urethra (lesser Vetibular glands)

Either side vaginal orifice (greater Vestibular glands)

50

What is the abnormal growth of vulvar skin with white plaques, atrophy, and parchment consistency?

(additionally there is a contracture of the vulvar tissue)

When is this usually seen?

Lichen sclerosis

Older women

51

Where is milk produced within the breast?

Alveoli (grapelike clusters) within lobules within lobes

52

How many lobes are in each breast?

What are in the lobes?

15-20

Lobules (and alveoli)

53

What keeps the breast firm?

Suspensory Ligaments of Cooper

54

Where are the Suspensory Ligaments of Cooper?

Between Lobules within the Lobe

Connect Skin to Deep Fascia

55

In what outer structure close to the nipple is milk stored?

What ducts lead to the nipple?

Ampullae

Lactiferous ducts

56

Where does milk flow after produced by the Alveoli?

Mammary ducts

57

Trace the ducts through the breast:

Mammary > Ampullae > Lactiferous

58

What are the 3 layers of the Uterus?

Serosa - outer layer (mesothelial derivation)

Myometrium - middle smooth muscle

Endometrium - Functionalis and Basalis

59

What does the Uterine Serosa become laterally?

Broad ligament

60

Why is the Cervical Transformation Zone of concern?

Cells change - most common place for abnormal cells to develop

*abrupt change from Stratified Squamous Epithelium to Columnar from Ecto to Endo-cervix

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