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Flashcards in Boards - Dental Anatomy Compendium Deck (157):
1

Primary dentition quadrant formula

Permanent dentition quadrant formula

i 2/2 c 1/1 m 2/2

I 2/2 C 1/1 P 2/2 M 3/3

2

Contact areas for Maxillary Anterior teeth:

Mandibular Anterior teeth:

IJ JM JM

II II IM

3

Generally, the proximal contact area of all Posterior Teeth is located where?

The _______ contact is more occlusally positioned.

The contacts are ______ shaped and are slightly wider in a ______ dimension.

Middle 1/3 occlusocervically

mesial

ovoid, faciolingual

4

What are the 2 exceptions the the Generalities of Proximal contacts of Posterior teeth?

Mand 1 PM - mesial contact cervical to distal

Molars (Max and Mand) mesial contact = J

*J - junction occlusal and middle 1/3

5

Contact areas for Max Posterior teeth:

Contact areas for Mand Posterior teeth:

MM MM JM JM JM

MM MM JM JM JM

6

All teeth have proximal contact in the middle 1/3 faciolingually, with the exception of ______ teeth, which are located more facially.

Posterior

7

The Facial Heights of Contour are generally at the _______ of the crown.

What teeth have Facial Heights of Contour a little more occlusally (junction of Cervical and Middle 1/3)?

Cervical 1/3

Mandibular Molars

8

Facial Heights of Contour, aka...

Cervical Ridges

9

On what teeth are Facial Heights of Contour (cervical ridges) most prominent?

Where are they least prominent?

Mandibular Posterior

Mandibular Anterior

10

Anterior teeth have Cervical Ridges on both facial and lingual sides located where?

Cervical 1/3 all around

11

Posterior teeth have lingual Heights of Contour located where?

Exception? Where?

Middle 1/3

Mand 2 PM - Occlusal 1/3

12

The CEJ, aka cervical line goes ______ proximally

incisal/occlusal

13

The CEJ dips more on the ______ teeth

Dips more on what proximal surface?

Dips more on the Max or Mand teeth?

Anterior

Mesial

Maxillary

14

The most severe curvature of the CEJ is seen where?

The lease curvature?

Mesial Max CI's

Distal Mand 3M

15

4 Embrasures around every tooth:

Occlusal

Gingival

Lingual

Facial

16

Generally, the facial/lingual embrasure is larger on permanent teeth.

Lingual

17

What are the 3 exceptions to Lingual embrasures being larger?

Max 1M

Mand 2 PM - 3 cusp variety

Mand CI's - facial/lingual equal

18

List Incisal Embrasures largest to smallest: (6)

Max LI and Canine

Mand LI and Canine

Max CI and LI

Max CI's

Mand CI and LI

Mand CI's

19

Where is the largest Occlusal Embrasure?

Max Canine and 1st PM

20

When is the 1st evidence of in utero calcification?

When is the calcification of Crowns complete?

2nd Trimester/14 weeks

11 months (Max 2M)

21

_______ teeth usually erupt before their counterparts

*both primary and permanent

Mandibular

22

What are the 1st teeth to erupt?

What are the last?

Mand CI's (10 months)

Max 2M (29 months)

23

When do all the roots complete formation?

What is the last to complete?

39 months

Max canines

24

What are the 1st permanent teeth that initiate calcification?

When does this occur?

1st Molars

After birth

25

Mandibular teeth usually erupt before Maxillary with what exception?

Max 2 PM

*erupt same/before Mand 1 PM

26

What are the 1st permanent teeth to erupt?

When does this occur?

1st Molars

6 years

*mixed dentition

27

What are the 1st succedaneous permanent teeth to erupt?

When?

Mand CI's

6-7 yrs

28

What are the last succedaneous permanent teeth to erupt?

Max canines

29

What are the last teeth to initiate calcification, complete crown formation, and erupt?

When does the initiation of calcification begin?

3rd Molars

9 yrs

30

From the facial/lingual view, all teeth are what shape?

Trapezoidal

*short side gingival

31

From the Proximal view, the Anterior teeth are what shape?

The Max posterior?

The Mand posterior?

Triangular

Trapezoidal (short side occlusal)

Rhomboidal

32

If the Maxillary incisor is bisected over the long axis of the tooth where is the icisal edge?

Centered

33

If the Canine is bisected along its long axis (mesiodistal line), the cusp tip is located where?

*Where is it never?

Centered or facial

*Never lingual

34

If the Mandibular Incisors are bisected along the long axis of the tooth, where is the incisal edge?

Mandibular Canines?

Lingual

Lingual

35

Teeth with one facial cusp (canine, PM's), what cusp ridge is generally shorter?

What are the 2 exceptions?

Mesial

Max 1 PM / Primary Max Canine

36

The crowns of teeth tend to get shorter from the ______ to the ______

Canine

3rd Molar

37

All teeth develop from ___ lobes.

What are the 3 exceptions?

4

Max 1M, Mand 1M, 3-cusp Mand 2PM

*5 lobe exceptions

38

T/F
Generally, the mesial portion of a tooth is better developed and measures more occlusocervically as well as cervicoapically than does the distal portion

True

39

When comparing within tooth classifications (molars, premolars, etc), the more _____ the tooth, the more likely supplemental (tertiary) anatomy is present

Posterior (distal)

40

Where is the largest cusp on the Molars?

Where is that on the Maxillaries?

Mandibular?

Mesial supporting cusp

ML

MF

41

The roots of all teeth are inclined _______

distally

42

If a single root has 2 canals, where will they be oriented?

Facial

Lingual

43

Teeth erupt as many pulp horns as there are _____

cusps

44

What Molar Roots have more than 1 canal and where are they located?

(5 of them)

Max 1M (MF root)

Mand 1M (M root)

Mand 1M (D root 31.6%)

Mand 2M (M root)

Mand 2M (D root 14.9%)

45

T/F
Maxillary anterior teeth have multiple canals

False

*Max do NOT have multiple canals

46

What are the 3 Anterior Roots with tendencies for more than 1 canal? (list most to least likely)

Additionally, what do all these teeth have?

Mand canine

Mand LI

Mand CI

***all have M & D root depressions

47

Describe the canals/roots of the Max PM's

1st: ALWAYS 2 canals, usually 2 roots (F & L)

2nd: Variant (can have 2 canals, occasionally 2 roots)

48

What PM is most likely to have one root and one canal?

Mand 2nd

49

What is the only tooth that has a pulp wider mesiodisally than faciolingually?

Max CI

50

What shape are the Max CI's and LI's when viewed incisally in cross section?

Triangular

*taper faciolingually

51

Max CI: M-D crown dimension...

M curvature of cervical line toward incisal...

Incisal ridge _____ faciolingually

greatest of Anterior teeth

greatest of ANY tooth

centered

52

Max LI: M-D crown dimension...

Tooth with most developmental ______

Most ____ located contact area of any incisor

M-D and F-L dimensions _____ than any other anterior tooth

Incisor Ridge ______ faciolingually

smallest of any Maxillary tooth

anomalies

cervically

closer

centered

53

Mand CI: crown dimensions...

Crown is:

Proximoincisal line angles...

What tooth has similar Proximoincisal line angle?

Proximal contact areas are where?

Incisal edge ______ to faciolingual bisector (all Mand Ant)



smallest of ANY tooth

bilaterally symmetric

sharpest of any tooth

MI line angle Max LI

Both Incisal 1/3 (I)

Lingual

54

What are 3 unique characteristics shared between Mand CI and LI?

Fewest facial developments/features

smoothest lingual surface contours

least developed cingulum

55

Mand LI: describe Crown:

MI or DI is sharper?

Twisted on root

MI

56

Max Canine: Tied in tooth length with what?

Longest what of any tooth?

Greatest ______ dimensions of any Anterior tooth

Has a bulge where?

Cusp tip is centered and never _______

Greatest _______ and _______ prominences of any Anterior tooth

Distal contact area _______ FL and CI

Mand Canine

Root length

Facio-Lingual

Distally

Lingual

Cervical, Facial ridge prominences

Centered

57

Mand Canine: Tied for longest tooth length with what?

Longest what of any Mandibular tooth?

Longest what of ANY tooth?

What side aligned straight?

Facial crown and root what shape from the proximal?

Cusp tip/incisal edge is to what side of the F-L bisector?

ML and DL fossae borders the lingual ridge and the the ______ cervically

Max Canine

Root length

I-C crown length

Mesial crown/root

C shaped

Lingual (like all Mand Anteriors)

Cingulum

58

Max 1 PM: Only PM with ____ ridge longer *on facial cusp

Mesial Marginal Ridge has what?

Crown concavity where?

Root depression where?

L cusp ___ mm shorter than F cusp

Deep _____ developmental groove

Mesial

Developmental Groove

Mesial

Mesial

1.0mm

Central

59

Max 2 PM: More ______ than any other posterior tooth

Cusp heights are closer than any other _____

M and D fossae are very ______ (more than any other posterior tooth)

Bilaterally symmetrical

PM

close

60

Mand 1 PM: Only tooth that has what developmental groove?

Smallest Posterior tooth in what dimension?

FL and MD dimensions closer than any other Mand tooth, hence _____ shaped

Which proximal contact is more cervical?

From Lingual aspect can see _____ occlusal surface

Mesial marginal ridge sloped lingually ____ degrees and is cervical to Distal marginal ridge

L cusp is small and ______

ML groove

F-L

Diamond

Mesial

Sloped

45 degrees

non-functional (like cingulum)

61

Mand 2 PM: Two varieties:

3 cusp os the only PM with multiple cusps, develops from how many lobes?

3-cusp only PM with a lingual _____

3-cusp only PM with a central _____

3-cusp, along with Max 1M, only tooth crown does NOT taper_______

3-cusp PM Lingual height of contour where?

3-cusp PM most likely PM to be ______ missing

2 cusp U/H, 3 cusp Y

5 lobes

groove

fossa

Faciolingually (tapers facially)

Occlusal 1/3

Congenitally

62

Max 1M: Along with the Mand 2PM, the only tooth with what characteristic?

What augments the ML cusp?

Like all Max Molars, has what feature on the occlusal?

Like all Max Molar, 3 Primary cusp triangles:

Distal contact area is ________

Tapers facially (MD lingual greater than MD facial)

Cusp of Carabelli

Oblique Ridge

MF, DF, ML

Centered

63

Max 2M: How many cusps?

Which cusp is small?

Dital contact area is ______

Like all Max Molars, has what feature on the occlusal?

4 Primary, rarely a 5th

DL

Centered

Oblique Ridge

64

Max 3M: What dimension is smallest of any tooth?

Shortest ____ of any Max tooth

The distal inclination is ______ of any Max tooth

Primary Cusp Triangle is present (heart shaped) of has a vestige of a _____ cusp (talon)

Multiple ______ ridges and grooves

Like all Max Molars, what feature on the occlusal?

OC crown length

Root(s)

Greatest

DL

supplemental

Oblique Ridge

65

Mand 1M: Largest _____ dimension of ANY tooth (11 mm)

Largest _____ dimension of any Mand tooth (10.5 mm)

Largest ______ dimension of any Mand Molar:

Longest ______ length of ANY MOLAR:

Greatest ______ separation of ANY tooth

Only tooth with 2 _______.

M-D crown

F-L

OC crown

Root (14 mm)

MD root

Facial Development Grooves

66

Mand 2M: Characteristic Crown Prominence on the ____

____ shaped occlusal groove pattern

Cusp lengths are ______

Distal Proximal contact is ______

MF

+

Equal in size

Centered

67

Mand 3M: Smallest ____ dimension of Any Mand Tooth

Crown more ______ than any other Mand Tooth

More _____ root inclination than any other Mand Tooth

Shortest ____ of ANY Mand teeth

Multiple _____ ridges and grooves

OC

Bulbous

Distal

Root(s)

Supplemental

68

What is the widest tooth mesio-distally?

Mand 1M

69

What is the widest Primary tooth mesiodistally?

Mand 2M

70

What is the widest Anterior tooth mesiodistally?

Max CI

71

What is the widest tooth Faciolingually?

Max 1M

72

What is the widest Primary tooth Faciolingually?

Max 2M

73

What is the only tooth with a pulp chamber wider mesiodistally than faciolingually?

Max CI

74

What 3 teeth measure wider Lingually than Facially?

Primary Max 2M

Permanent Max 1M

3-cusp Mand 2PM

75

What are the longest teeth from cusp to root tip?
(2)

How long are they?

Max canine

Mand canine

27.0 mm

76

What tooth has the longest root? (mm)

Max canine (17 mm)

77

What teeth have the longest crown IncisoGingivally?

Mand Canine (11.0 mm)

Max CI (10.5 mm)

Max Canine (10.0 mm)

78

Other than the 3rd Molars, what is the most common permanent tooth to have anomalies?

Max LI's

79

What are 5 anomalies seen in Max LI's?

Dens in Dente

Congenitally missing

Microdontia

Peg lateral

Supernumerary

80

What is the most common Supernumerary tooth?

Mesiodens (btwn Max CI's)

81

What is the most likely Premolar to be congenitally missing?

Mand 2PM

82

What is the most common tooth to be congenitally missing or malformed?

3rd Molars

83

What is the tooth with the smallest anatomical crown?

Mand CI

84

What Anterior tooth has the most symmetrical anatomical crown?

Mand CI

85

What Posterior tooth has the most symmetrical anatomical crown?

Max 2PM

86

What tooth has the narrowest Mesiodistal measurement?

Mand CI

87

What tooth has the best developed lingual anatomy?

Max LI

88

What is the only tooth with a linguogingival groove?

Max LI

89

What is the only tooth with a Mesiolingual groove?

Mand 1PM

90

What is the only tooth with a Mesial Marginal Developmental Groove?

Max 1PM

91

The smallest Facial and Lingual embrasures in the mouth is where?

between the Mand CI's

92

When the cementum of 2 proximal teeth is fused together, it is called _______.

It is usually associated with what teeth?

Concrescence

2nd and 3rd Molars (also Anteriors)

93

What 3 teeth are most often impacted?
(starting with the most common)

3rd Molars

Max canines

Mand 2PM

94

What bone makes up the Mandibular Fossa that houses the TM Joint?

Temporal Bone

95

The Superior Synovial Cavity is involved in TMJ ______, while the Inferior is involved in ______.

Translation

Rotation

96

The Articular Disc of the TMJ is made up of _____ Connective Tissue, has no collateral ligaments, innervation, or vascularization.

Fibrous

97

The TMJ is highly innervated and vascular, loading is painful, and _____ can cause inflammation

Trauma

98

Maximum Intercuspation, aka

Centric Occlusion

99

Maximum Intercuspation is habitual centric and describes an _________ relationship

Occlusal

100

When the teeth are contacting in a position the pt finds the most comfortable, this is what?

Maximum Intercuspation

101

What jaw position is easily achievable, but not always reproducible by the pt?

Maximum Intercuspation

102

Centric Relation describes a ______ position

Condylar

103

What is the condylar position in Centric Relation?

Superior and Anterior

104

In Centric Relation, the Condyles are on a _____ portion of the disc

Thin

105

What position describes the most stable position of the Condyle?

Centric Relation

*superior/anterior position w/ disc properly interposed (thin section)

106

In Ideal Occlusion ________ and ______ occur simultaneously

Maximum Intercuspation

Centric Occlusion

107

All teeth contact simultaneously, All occlusal forces are longitudinal, there is no crossover
Describes?

Ideal Occlusion

108

In Ideal Occlusion, during crossover, guidance is smoothly transferred to the _______.

_______ contacts dominate

Eccentric movements are _______ guided

Incisors

Posterior

Anterior

109

In Ideal Occlusion, what doesn't occur on Posterior Teeth?

Cross-over contacts

110

What are the 4 Muscles of Mastication?

Temporalis

Masseter

Medial Pterygoid

Lateral Pterygoid

111

What is the least likely muscle of mastication to be palpated by a clinician?

Lateral Pterygoid

112

If the Lateral Pterygoid is damaged, what side will the Mandible deviate to?

Same Side

113

What 3 muscles are involved in Normal Closure of the Mandible?

Temporalis (anterior fibers)

Medial Pterygoid

Masseter

114

What muscles have to relax in the Elevation (closure) of the Mandible?

What muscle of mastication plays no part?

Suprahyoids

Inferior belly - Lateral Pterygoid

115

What muscle primarily contracts in the Maximum Opening Position of the Mandible?

Lateral Pterygoid - Inferior Belly

116

In the Maximum Opening Position, where does the Mandibular Condyle stop?

Terminus of the Articular Eminence

117

In Max Opening Position, the _______ moves with the Condyle

Articular Disc

118

In Angle's Class I Occlusion (neutrocclusion), the ______ cusp of the Max 1M occludes with the _______ of the ________.

Mesiolingual

Central fossa

Mand 1M

119

In Angle's Class I Occlusion, the _____ cusp of the Max 1M occludes with the_____ Groove of the _______.

Mesiofacial

Mesiofacial

Mand 1M

120

In Angle's Class I Occlusion, the Cusp Tip of the Max Canine articulates with what?

Facial Embrasure between Mand Canine and Mand 1PM

121

Define Border Movements in the Saggital Plane: CR:

MI:

E-T-E:

MP:

MOA:

MO:

HA-MO:

HAT:

HA:

RP:

CL:

Centric Relation

Maximum Intercuspation

Edge to Edge Incisal

Maximum Protrusion Point

Maximum Opening Arc

Maximum Opening Point

Hinge Axis to Maximum Opening

Hinge Axis Terminating Point

Hinge Axis Arc

Rest Position (Postural/Position of Mandible)

Chewing Loop

122

When the Lateral Translation movement occurs BEFORE the condyle translates from the fossa:

Immediate Sideshift

123

The Lateral Translation of the condyle in a downward, forward, and inward (medial) direction:

Progressive Sideshift

124

The more severe the Immediate Sideshift, the ______ the Posterior Cusps and the ______ the Fossae/Grooves

Shorter

Wider

125

Immediate Sideshift + Progressive Sideshift =

Bennett Movement

126

Border Movement in the Frontal Plane: MI:

ELL:

MO:

CL:

RP:

ERL:

Maximum Intercuspation

Extreme Left Lateral

Maximum Opening

Chewing Loop

Rest Position

Extreme Right Lateral

127

In Vertical Determinants of Occlusion, the Condylar Guidance Angle is ______ and the Anterior Guidance is ______.

Fixed

Variable

128

With Vertical Determinants of Occlusion, the Nearness of the cusp to the Controlling Factors is ______

The Plane of Occlusion is _______

The Curve of Spee is ______.

The Mandibular Lateral Translation aka Bennet Movement is _______.

variable

variable

variable

fixed

129

The timing of MLT (mediolateral Translation) with Vertical Determinants of Occlusion is determined by _____ and _____ and is _____

Immediate Sideshift (Bennet shift)

Progressive Sideshift

Fixed

130

The Non-Working condyle moves ________

The Working condyle moves ________

Mediotrusive

Laterotrusive

131

The medial wall of the non-working (mediotrusive) condyle can affect _____ of the Maxillary _______

And can affect the Mandibular _______ on the ______ side

Height, Lingual cusps

Facial cusps, Non-working (same side)

132

In a lateral movement, the working-side (laterotrusive) cusps are affected by what on the working side?

Canine rise

133

The nearer the tooth to the TMJ, the more the joint anatomy influences the _______ movement

Eccentric

134

The nearer a specific tooth is to the Anterior teeth, the ______ of the anterior teeth influence its eccentric movement

Anatomy

135

The width of fossae and the direction of grooves are _________ considerations of occlusal morphology

Horizontal

136

The depth of fossae and the height of cusps are ______ considerations of occlusal morphology

Vertical

137

The occlusal forces placed on Posterior Teeth are best distributed in ________

Maximum Intercuspation

138

As the plane of occlusion approaches parallel with the Articular Eminence, the ______ the Posterior Cusps will need to be in order to avoid collision

Shorter

139

A steep condylar guidance angle will allow for _____ cusps

Taller

140

The more acute the Curve of Spee, the ______the cusps will need to be to avoid collisions

shorter

141

The greater the distance between the orbiting condyle and the medial wall, the _____ the amount of immediate sideshift

Greater

142

The greater the amount of immediate sideshift, the _____ the cusps will need to be


the ____ the grooves will need to be

Shorter

Wider

143

The Location of Non-Working Side (Mediotrusive) Interferences: are the ______ inclines of the Maxillary Posterior ______ cusps

the ______ inclines of the Mandibular posterior _____ cusps

Facial, Lingual

Lingual, Facial

144

Location of Non-Working Side (Mediotrusive) Interfereneces: are Parallel to the ______ on the Max 1M

are Parallel to the ______ on the Mand 1M

Distal Oblique Groove

Distofacial Developmental Groove

145

Location of Working Side (Laterotrusive) Interferences: are the ______ inclines of the Maxillary Posterior _____ and ______cusps

Lingual

Facial and Lingual cusps

146

Location of the Working Side (Laterotrusive) Interferences : are the ______ inclines of the Mandibular Posterior ____ and _____ cusps.

Facial

Facial and Lingual cusps

147

Location of Protrusive Interferences: _____ ridges of the Mandibular Posterior Teeth

_______ ridges of the Maxillary Posterior Teeth

Distal Marginal

Mesial Marginal `

148

In Lateral Displacement of the Mandible, due to Occlusal Prematurities, _________ contacts will display Medial and Lateral Pterygoid contracture on the OPPOSITE side.

What 2 muscles are contracting on the Same Side as the Interference?

"A" and "C"

Masseter, Posterior/Middle Temporalis

149

In Lateral Diplacement of the Mandible, du to Occlusal Prematurities, ______ contacts will display Medial and Lateral Pterygoid contracture on the SAME side.

What 2 muscles are contracting on the Opposite Side as the Interference?

"B"

Masseter, Posterior/Middle Temporalis

150

A deviation in position of form of the tissues within the capsular apparatus of the TMJ, essentially giving rise to an abnormal relationship of the articular disc to the condyl, mandibular fossa and/or articular eminence:

Internal Derangement

151

Problems and clinical conditions associated with the TMJ that are contained within the capsular apparatus (the immediate joint tissues):

Intracapsular TMD

TMD = temperomandibular disorders

152

Problems and clinical conditions associated with the TMJ that are Outside the joint (muscles of mastication/ligaments):

Extracapsular TMD

TMD = temperomandibular disorders

153

Various common and painful states defined by the presence of trigger points within the affected muscle(s)

*common source of pain in the lower back, neck, shoulder, chest, and ribs

Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome

154

Dislocation/Displacement of the Articular Disc:

*either anterior or posterior to head of condyle

Articular Disc Displacement

155

Popping from Articular Disc, a forceful "jumping back" or "snapping" over the head of the condyle, usually occuring during early opening or late closing:

Reciprocal Clicking

156

Internal derangement of the TMJ - dislocated anteriorly and medially to condyle:

*Unable to recede posteriorly onto the head of the condyle

Closed Lock

157

The determination of one or two or more conditions a patient is suffering from by systematically comparing and contrasting their historical and clinical findings:

Differential Diagnosis

Decks in Tim's Cards Class (140):