Flashcards in Boards - Dental Anatomy Compendium Deck (157):
Primary dentition quadrant formula
Permanent dentition quadrant formula
i 2/2 c 1/1 m 2/2
I 2/2 C 1/1 P 2/2 M 3/3
Contact areas for Maxillary Anterior teeth:
Mandibular Anterior teeth:
IJ JM JM
II II IM
Generally, the proximal contact area of all Posterior Teeth is located where?
The _______ contact is more occlusally positioned.
The contacts are ______ shaped and are slightly wider in a ______ dimension.
Middle 1/3 occlusocervically
What are the 2 exceptions the the Generalities of Proximal contacts of Posterior teeth?
Mand 1 PM - mesial contact cervical to distal
Molars (Max and Mand) mesial contact = J
*J - junction occlusal and middle 1/3
Contact areas for Max Posterior teeth:
Contact areas for Mand Posterior teeth:
MM MM JM JM JM
MM MM JM JM JM
All teeth have proximal contact in the middle 1/3 faciolingually, with the exception of ______ teeth, which are located more facially.
The Facial Heights of Contour are generally at the _______ of the crown.
What teeth have Facial Heights of Contour a little more occlusally (junction of Cervical and Middle 1/3)?
Facial Heights of Contour, aka...
On what teeth are Facial Heights of Contour (cervical ridges) most prominent?
Where are they least prominent?
Anterior teeth have Cervical Ridges on both facial and lingual sides located where?
Cervical 1/3 all around
Posterior teeth have lingual Heights of Contour located where?
Mand 2 PM - Occlusal 1/3
The CEJ, aka cervical line goes ______ proximally
The CEJ dips more on the ______ teeth
Dips more on what proximal surface?
Dips more on the Max or Mand teeth?
The most severe curvature of the CEJ is seen where?
The lease curvature?
Mesial Max CI's
Distal Mand 3M
4 Embrasures around every tooth:
Generally, the facial/lingual embrasure is larger on permanent teeth.
What are the 3 exceptions to Lingual embrasures being larger?
Mand 2 PM - 3 cusp variety
Mand CI's - facial/lingual equal
List Incisal Embrasures largest to smallest: (6)
Max LI and Canine
Mand LI and Canine
Max CI and LI
Mand CI and LI
Where is the largest Occlusal Embrasure?
Max Canine and 1st PM
When is the 1st evidence of in utero calcification?
When is the calcification of Crowns complete?
2nd Trimester/14 weeks
11 months (Max 2M)
_______ teeth usually erupt before their counterparts
*both primary and permanent
What are the 1st teeth to erupt?
What are the last?
Mand CI's (10 months)
Max 2M (29 months)
When do all the roots complete formation?
What is the last to complete?
What are the 1st permanent teeth that initiate calcification?
When does this occur?
Mandibular teeth usually erupt before Maxillary with what exception?
Max 2 PM
*erupt same/before Mand 1 PM
What are the 1st permanent teeth to erupt?
When does this occur?
What are the 1st succedaneous permanent teeth to erupt?
What are the last succedaneous permanent teeth to erupt?
What are the last teeth to initiate calcification, complete crown formation, and erupt?
When does the initiation of calcification begin?
From the facial/lingual view, all teeth are what shape?
*short side gingival
From the Proximal view, the Anterior teeth are what shape?
The Max posterior?
The Mand posterior?
Trapezoidal (short side occlusal)
If the Maxillary incisor is bisected over the long axis of the tooth where is the icisal edge?
If the Canine is bisected along its long axis (mesiodistal line), the cusp tip is located where?
*Where is it never?
Centered or facial
If the Mandibular Incisors are bisected along the long axis of the tooth, where is the incisal edge?
Teeth with one facial cusp (canine, PM's), what cusp ridge is generally shorter?
What are the 2 exceptions?
Max 1 PM / Primary Max Canine
The crowns of teeth tend to get shorter from the ______ to the ______
All teeth develop from ___ lobes.
What are the 3 exceptions?
Max 1M, Mand 1M, 3-cusp Mand 2PM
*5 lobe exceptions
Generally, the mesial portion of a tooth is better developed and measures more occlusocervically as well as cervicoapically than does the distal portion
When comparing within tooth classifications (molars, premolars, etc), the more _____ the tooth, the more likely supplemental (tertiary) anatomy is present
Where is the largest cusp on the Molars?
Where is that on the Maxillaries?
Mesial supporting cusp
The roots of all teeth are inclined _______
If a single root has 2 canals, where will they be oriented?
Teeth erupt as many pulp horns as there are _____
What Molar Roots have more than 1 canal and where are they located?
(5 of them)
Max 1M (MF root)
Mand 1M (M root)
Mand 1M (D root 31.6%)
Mand 2M (M root)
Mand 2M (D root 14.9%)
Maxillary anterior teeth have multiple canals
*Max do NOT have multiple canals
What are the 3 Anterior Roots with tendencies for more than 1 canal? (list most to least likely)
Additionally, what do all these teeth have?
***all have M & D root depressions
Describe the canals/roots of the Max PM's
1st: ALWAYS 2 canals, usually 2 roots (F & L)
2nd: Variant (can have 2 canals, occasionally 2 roots)
What PM is most likely to have one root and one canal?
What is the only tooth that has a pulp wider mesiodisally than faciolingually?
What shape are the Max CI's and LI's when viewed incisally in cross section?
Max CI: M-D crown dimension...
M curvature of cervical line toward incisal...
Incisal ridge _____ faciolingually
greatest of Anterior teeth
greatest of ANY tooth
Max LI: M-D crown dimension...
Tooth with most developmental ______
Most ____ located contact area of any incisor
M-D and F-L dimensions _____ than any other anterior tooth
Incisor Ridge ______ faciolingually
smallest of any Maxillary tooth
Mand CI: crown dimensions...
Proximoincisal line angles...
What tooth has similar Proximoincisal line angle?
Proximal contact areas are where?
Incisal edge ______ to faciolingual bisector (all Mand Ant)
smallest of ANY tooth
sharpest of any tooth
MI line angle Max LI
Both Incisal 1/3 (I)
What are 3 unique characteristics shared between Mand CI and LI?
Fewest facial developments/features
smoothest lingual surface contours
least developed cingulum
Mand LI: describe Crown:
MI or DI is sharper?
Twisted on root
Max Canine: Tied in tooth length with what?
Longest what of any tooth?
Greatest ______ dimensions of any Anterior tooth
Has a bulge where?
Cusp tip is centered and never _______
Greatest _______ and _______ prominences of any Anterior tooth
Distal contact area _______ FL and CI
Cervical, Facial ridge prominences
Mand Canine: Tied for longest tooth length with what?
Longest what of any Mandibular tooth?
Longest what of ANY tooth?
What side aligned straight?
Facial crown and root what shape from the proximal?
Cusp tip/incisal edge is to what side of the F-L bisector?
ML and DL fossae borders the lingual ridge and the the ______ cervically
I-C crown length
Lingual (like all Mand Anteriors)
Max 1 PM: Only PM with ____ ridge longer *on facial cusp
Mesial Marginal Ridge has what?
Crown concavity where?
Root depression where?
L cusp ___ mm shorter than F cusp
Deep _____ developmental groove
Max 2 PM: More ______ than any other posterior tooth
Cusp heights are closer than any other _____
M and D fossae are very ______ (more than any other posterior tooth)
Mand 1 PM: Only tooth that has what developmental groove?
Smallest Posterior tooth in what dimension?
FL and MD dimensions closer than any other Mand tooth, hence _____ shaped
Which proximal contact is more cervical?
From Lingual aspect can see _____ occlusal surface
Mesial marginal ridge sloped lingually ____ degrees and is cervical to Distal marginal ridge
L cusp is small and ______
non-functional (like cingulum)
Mand 2 PM: Two varieties:
3 cusp os the only PM with multiple cusps, develops from how many lobes?
3-cusp only PM with a lingual _____
3-cusp only PM with a central _____
3-cusp, along with Max 1M, only tooth crown does NOT taper_______
3-cusp PM Lingual height of contour where?
3-cusp PM most likely PM to be ______ missing
2 cusp U/H, 3 cusp Y
Faciolingually (tapers facially)
Max 1M: Along with the Mand 2PM, the only tooth with what characteristic?
What augments the ML cusp?
Like all Max Molars, has what feature on the occlusal?
Like all Max Molar, 3 Primary cusp triangles:
Distal contact area is ________
Tapers facially (MD lingual greater than MD facial)
Cusp of Carabelli
MF, DF, ML
Max 2M: How many cusps?
Which cusp is small?
Dital contact area is ______
Like all Max Molars, has what feature on the occlusal?
4 Primary, rarely a 5th
Max 3M: What dimension is smallest of any tooth?
Shortest ____ of any Max tooth
The distal inclination is ______ of any Max tooth
Primary Cusp Triangle is present (heart shaped) of has a vestige of a _____ cusp (talon)
Multiple ______ ridges and grooves
Like all Max Molars, what feature on the occlusal?
OC crown length
Mand 1M: Largest _____ dimension of ANY tooth (11 mm)
Largest _____ dimension of any Mand tooth (10.5 mm)
Largest ______ dimension of any Mand Molar:
Longest ______ length of ANY MOLAR:
Greatest ______ separation of ANY tooth
Only tooth with 2 _______.
Root (14 mm)
Facial Development Grooves
Mand 2M: Characteristic Crown Prominence on the ____
____ shaped occlusal groove pattern
Cusp lengths are ______
Distal Proximal contact is ______
Equal in size
Mand 3M: Smallest ____ dimension of Any Mand Tooth
Crown more ______ than any other Mand Tooth
More _____ root inclination than any other Mand Tooth
Shortest ____ of ANY Mand teeth
Multiple _____ ridges and grooves
What is the widest tooth mesio-distally?
What is the widest Primary tooth mesiodistally?
What is the widest Anterior tooth mesiodistally?
What is the widest tooth Faciolingually?
What is the widest Primary tooth Faciolingually?
What is the only tooth with a pulp chamber wider mesiodistally than faciolingually?
What 3 teeth measure wider Lingually than Facially?
Primary Max 2M
Permanent Max 1M
3-cusp Mand 2PM
What are the longest teeth from cusp to root tip?
How long are they?
What tooth has the longest root? (mm)
Max canine (17 mm)
What teeth have the longest crown IncisoGingivally?
Mand Canine (11.0 mm)
Max CI (10.5 mm)
Max Canine (10.0 mm)
Other than the 3rd Molars, what is the most common permanent tooth to have anomalies?
What are 5 anomalies seen in Max LI's?
Dens in Dente
What is the most common Supernumerary tooth?
Mesiodens (btwn Max CI's)
What is the most likely Premolar to be congenitally missing?
What is the most common tooth to be congenitally missing or malformed?
What is the tooth with the smallest anatomical crown?
What Anterior tooth has the most symmetrical anatomical crown?
What Posterior tooth has the most symmetrical anatomical crown?
What tooth has the narrowest Mesiodistal measurement?
What tooth has the best developed lingual anatomy?
What is the only tooth with a linguogingival groove?
What is the only tooth with a Mesiolingual groove?
What is the only tooth with a Mesial Marginal Developmental Groove?
The smallest Facial and Lingual embrasures in the mouth is where?
between the Mand CI's
When the cementum of 2 proximal teeth is fused together, it is called _______.
It is usually associated with what teeth?
2nd and 3rd Molars (also Anteriors)
What 3 teeth are most often impacted?
(starting with the most common)
What bone makes up the Mandibular Fossa that houses the TM Joint?
The Superior Synovial Cavity is involved in TMJ ______, while the Inferior is involved in ______.
The Articular Disc of the TMJ is made up of _____ Connective Tissue, has no collateral ligaments, innervation, or vascularization.
The TMJ is highly innervated and vascular, loading is painful, and _____ can cause inflammation
Maximum Intercuspation, aka
Maximum Intercuspation is habitual centric and describes an _________ relationship
When the teeth are contacting in a position the pt finds the most comfortable, this is what?
What jaw position is easily achievable, but not always reproducible by the pt?
Centric Relation describes a ______ position
What is the condylar position in Centric Relation?
Superior and Anterior
In Centric Relation, the Condyles are on a _____ portion of the disc
What position describes the most stable position of the Condyle?
*superior/anterior position w/ disc properly interposed (thin section)
In Ideal Occlusion ________ and ______ occur simultaneously
All teeth contact simultaneously, All occlusal forces are longitudinal, there is no crossover
In Ideal Occlusion, during crossover, guidance is smoothly transferred to the _______.
_______ contacts dominate
Eccentric movements are _______ guided
In Ideal Occlusion, what doesn't occur on Posterior Teeth?
What are the 4 Muscles of Mastication?
What is the least likely muscle of mastication to be palpated by a clinician?
If the Lateral Pterygoid is damaged, what side will the Mandible deviate to?
What 3 muscles are involved in Normal Closure of the Mandible?
Temporalis (anterior fibers)
What muscles have to relax in the Elevation (closure) of the Mandible?
What muscle of mastication plays no part?
Inferior belly - Lateral Pterygoid
What muscle primarily contracts in the Maximum Opening Position of the Mandible?
Lateral Pterygoid - Inferior Belly
In the Maximum Opening Position, where does the Mandibular Condyle stop?
Terminus of the Articular Eminence
In Max Opening Position, the _______ moves with the Condyle
In Angle's Class I Occlusion (neutrocclusion), the ______ cusp of the Max 1M occludes with the _______ of the ________.
In Angle's Class I Occlusion, the _____ cusp of the Max 1M occludes with the_____ Groove of the _______.
In Angle's Class I Occlusion, the Cusp Tip of the Max Canine articulates with what?
Facial Embrasure between Mand Canine and Mand 1PM
Define Border Movements in the Saggital Plane: CR:
Edge to Edge Incisal
Maximum Protrusion Point
Maximum Opening Arc
Maximum Opening Point
Hinge Axis to Maximum Opening
Hinge Axis Terminating Point
Hinge Axis Arc
Rest Position (Postural/Position of Mandible)
When the Lateral Translation movement occurs BEFORE the condyle translates from the fossa:
The Lateral Translation of the condyle in a downward, forward, and inward (medial) direction:
The more severe the Immediate Sideshift, the ______ the Posterior Cusps and the ______ the Fossae/Grooves
Immediate Sideshift + Progressive Sideshift =
Border Movement in the Frontal Plane: MI:
Extreme Left Lateral
Extreme Right Lateral
In Vertical Determinants of Occlusion, the Condylar Guidance Angle is ______ and the Anterior Guidance is ______.
With Vertical Determinants of Occlusion, the Nearness of the cusp to the Controlling Factors is ______
The Plane of Occlusion is _______
The Curve of Spee is ______.
The Mandibular Lateral Translation aka Bennet Movement is _______.
The timing of MLT (mediolateral Translation) with Vertical Determinants of Occlusion is determined by _____ and _____ and is _____
Immediate Sideshift (Bennet shift)
The Non-Working condyle moves ________
The Working condyle moves ________
The medial wall of the non-working (mediotrusive) condyle can affect _____ of the Maxillary _______
And can affect the Mandibular _______ on the ______ side
Height, Lingual cusps
Facial cusps, Non-working (same side)
In a lateral movement, the working-side (laterotrusive) cusps are affected by what on the working side?
The nearer the tooth to the TMJ, the more the joint anatomy influences the _______ movement
The nearer a specific tooth is to the Anterior teeth, the ______ of the anterior teeth influence its eccentric movement
The width of fossae and the direction of grooves are _________ considerations of occlusal morphology
The depth of fossae and the height of cusps are ______ considerations of occlusal morphology
The occlusal forces placed on Posterior Teeth are best distributed in ________
As the plane of occlusion approaches parallel with the Articular Eminence, the ______ the Posterior Cusps will need to be in order to avoid collision
A steep condylar guidance angle will allow for _____ cusps
The more acute the Curve of Spee, the ______the cusps will need to be to avoid collisions
The greater the distance between the orbiting condyle and the medial wall, the _____ the amount of immediate sideshift
The greater the amount of immediate sideshift, the _____ the cusps will need to be
the ____ the grooves will need to be
The Location of Non-Working Side (Mediotrusive) Interferences: are the ______ inclines of the Maxillary Posterior ______ cusps
the ______ inclines of the Mandibular posterior _____ cusps
Location of Non-Working Side (Mediotrusive) Interfereneces: are Parallel to the ______ on the Max 1M
are Parallel to the ______ on the Mand 1M
Distal Oblique Groove
Distofacial Developmental Groove
Location of Working Side (Laterotrusive) Interferences: are the ______ inclines of the Maxillary Posterior _____ and ______cusps
Facial and Lingual cusps
Location of the Working Side (Laterotrusive) Interferences : are the ______ inclines of the Mandibular Posterior ____ and _____ cusps.
Facial and Lingual cusps
Location of Protrusive Interferences: _____ ridges of the Mandibular Posterior Teeth
_______ ridges of the Maxillary Posterior Teeth
Mesial Marginal `
In Lateral Displacement of the Mandible, due to Occlusal Prematurities, _________ contacts will display Medial and Lateral Pterygoid contracture on the OPPOSITE side.
What 2 muscles are contracting on the Same Side as the Interference?
"A" and "C"
Masseter, Posterior/Middle Temporalis
In Lateral Diplacement of the Mandible, du to Occlusal Prematurities, ______ contacts will display Medial and Lateral Pterygoid contracture on the SAME side.
What 2 muscles are contracting on the Opposite Side as the Interference?
Masseter, Posterior/Middle Temporalis
A deviation in position of form of the tissues within the capsular apparatus of the TMJ, essentially giving rise to an abnormal relationship of the articular disc to the condyl, mandibular fossa and/or articular eminence:
Problems and clinical conditions associated with the TMJ that are contained within the capsular apparatus (the immediate joint tissues):
TMD = temperomandibular disorders
Problems and clinical conditions associated with the TMJ that are Outside the joint (muscles of mastication/ligaments):
TMD = temperomandibular disorders
Various common and painful states defined by the presence of trigger points within the affected muscle(s)
*common source of pain in the lower back, neck, shoulder, chest, and ribs
Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome
Dislocation/Displacement of the Articular Disc:
*either anterior or posterior to head of condyle
Articular Disc Displacement
Popping from Articular Disc, a forceful "jumping back" or "snapping" over the head of the condyle, usually occuring during early opening or late closing:
Internal derangement of the TMJ - dislocated anteriorly and medially to condyle:
*Unable to recede posteriorly onto the head of the condyle