Flashcards in Lecture 12 RH Deck (46)
Where does the ileum end? What does it contain?
ileum ends at iliocecal junction which contains the iliocecal valve covering a smooth muscle sphincter.
What structure does the large intestine form below the iliocaecal junction?
What are the parts of the large intestine?
S-shaped sigmoid colon
How many layers of muscle does the large intestine contain?
2 muscular layers:
Outer longitudinal (continuous throughout the jejunum, ileum, and large intestine)
How long is the large intestine?
What are the tenia coli?
3 discrete longitudinal muscle bands in the large intestine. They are visible from the outside.
Why does the large intestine have a segmented appearance?
longitudinal muscle stripes are shorter than the mucosal tube inside them and that causes formation of haustrations of the mucosa.
What are epiploic appendages?
fat tags on the large intestine
What is the length of the cecum?
Cecum is variable in length between 3 and 4 inches long.
What is important about the appendix histologically?
appendix contains lots of lymphoid nodules histologically.
Where is the appendix located?
Everyone has an appendix at exactly the position where the tenea coli meet at the bottom of the cecum.
What are the variations in the tip of the appendix?
Tip of the appendix:
hanging down into pelvis (known as a pelvic appendix) 25%
Appendix tucked onto the side of the large ascending colon. (Known as a retrocaecal appendix) 65% of cases
What are the kinds of flexures that are present in the large intestine?
Right colic flexure or Hepatic flexure. (transition from ascending to transverse colon)
Left colic flexure or splenic flexure (transion from transverse colon to descending colon
Where is the viscus located?
Right upper quadrant.
How many surfaces does the liver have and what is their name/location?
Liver has 2 surfaces:
A smooth diaphragmatic surface
Why is the visceral surface not so smooth?
visceral surface bares (it's bears you idiot) impressions from adjacent viscera
What is the demarkation of the anterior and posterior surface of the liver? (where is the boundary between them?)
The inferior margin of the liver. It is tucked in to the right upper quadrant.
What is the job of the falciform ligament?
The falciform ligament connects the anterior part of the liver to the anterior abdominal wall.
What is the ligamentum teres of the liver?
Round ligamentum teres is a remnant of the umbilical vein from times of development.
What lobes is the liver divided into ateriorly?
Large right lobe
Small left lobe
What lobes is the liver divided into posteriorly?
caudate lobe superiorly
quadrate lobe inferiorly
What delineates the left and right lobes of the liver functionally?
What is the functional left lobe of the liver?
Where is IVC located relative to the liver?
IVC is embedded into the visceral surface of the liver.
What is the ligamentum teres and where does it attach? What is it called in the liver?
ligamentum teres is a cord that is remnant of the vein during development. For this reason it continues through the liver and then connects to IVC. When it reaches the liver's porta hepatis it is called the ligamentum venosum
What is the hilum of the liver called?
What structures can be found in the hilum of the liver?
arteries (proper hepatic artery divides into right and left hepatic arteries 1 for each functional half of the liver) On the left of the hilum
veins (portal vein also splits in half) behind the artery to the left and the duct to the right.
hepatic ducts (right and left from functional halves) on the right of the hilum
Where do the veins of the liver go?
venous drainage of the liver comes from the IVC. The portal veins penetrate IVC.
What structure does the helpatic duct go through to reach the duodenum?
lesser omentum ends at the duodenum. At that location the structures entering and exiting the porta hepatis is embedded in the free edge of the lesser omentum. This free edge connects the hilum to the duodenum.