Flashcards in Lecture 35 DA Deck (49):
What are the three parts of the pharynx, and what is each part posterior to?
Nasopharynx - behind nasal cavity
Oropharynx - behind oral cavity
Laryngopharynx - behind larynx
What is the superior roof of the pharynx?
Where does the pharynx end inferiorly?
Lower border of the cricoid cartilage at C6.
What forms the pharynx?
A series of sling-like muscles and fascia that encloses deficiencies in the muscle.
What are the three external layer muscles of the pharynx?
Superior, middle and inferior constrictor muscles.
Where does the superior constrictor muscle connect?
To a raphe found just posterior to the buccinator, and slings around the neck.
Where does the middle constrictor muscle connect?
Attaches along the hyoid bone, and slings around the neck to the other side.
Where does the inferior constrictor muscle connect?
Attaches to the lamina of the thyroid cartilage and partly to the cricoid cartilage, and slings around the neck to the other side.
What happens to constrictor muscles when swallowing?
What is the cricopharyngeus? What can be said of its nerve supply?
Can be considered the inferior part of the inferior constrictor muscle. It is named differently as it has a different nerve supply to the superior part of the inferior constrictor, which gets its supply from superior branches of vagus, whereas cricopharyngeus gets it from inferior branches.
What are the three internal layers of muscle in the pharynx?
Where does salpingopharyngeus attach?
Attaches from cartilaginous auditory tube to the pharynx.
Where does palatopharyngeus attach?
Attaches from soft palate to the pharynx.
Where does stylopharyngeus attach? What does it penetrate?
Attaches from the styloid process anterior to mastoid, and to the pharynx. Penetrates a gap between superior and inferior constrictor muscles.
What do the internal layer of muscles do? What do they do when the pharynx is fixed?
Elevates the pharynx. When pharynx is fixed, they pull on the soft palate.
What can be found in the nasopharynx under the sphenoid bone and above the auditory tube?
Pharyngeal tonsil, also called adenoids. Swelling can impinge nasal airway.
Why does one's voice change if their nose is blocked?
Nasal cavity is a resonance chamber.
What is the uvula?
Inferior projection of the soft palate.
What is the purpose of the auditory tube?
Equalises pressure between the middle ear and the atmosphere to prevent damage to the tympanic membrane.
What is the tubal elevation?
Swelling above the auditory tube, formed by the cartilaginous part of it.
What is the salpingopharyngeal fold?
Found posterior to the tubal elevation, and is where the salpingopharyngeus attaches to the auditory tube, and covered by mucosa.
Which muscle acts on the auditory tube to equalise pressure?
What are the boundaries of the oropharynx?
Roof - soft palate
Floor - posterior 1/3rd of the tongue
Lateral wall - mucosa
Posterior wall - superior constrictor
What is the vallecular?
Space between the tongue and epiglottis.
What two arches can be found in the oropharynx?
Palatoglossal anteriorly and palatopharyngeal posteriorly.
What are found in between the two arches of the oropharynx?
What forms the two arches of the oropharynx?
Palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus muscles.
Where is the lingual tonsil found?
Posterior third of the tongue.
What defines the border of the laryngeal inlet?
Does the epiglottis on its own make a perfect seal?
Why does the larynx elevate when swallowing?
To form a complete seal on the airway against the epiglottis.
If a bolus of food is heavy enough to push the epiglottis onto the airway, how does fluid enter the oesophagus?
Fluid can't move the epiglottis, so there are prirform recesses on either side whiich the fluid spills into.
Where is the laryngeal inlet?
What is the sensory nerve supply of the pharynx? What about nasopharynx and laryngopharynx?
Mostly innervated by glossopharyngeal nerve.
In the nasopharynx, some macillary divisions of trigeminal nerve can be found.
In the larynx, some internal laryngeal branches of vagus nerve can be found.
What do the nerves of the pharynx form?
Gag reflex and swallowing reflex.
What is the motor nerve supply of the pharynx?
Everything is by vagus nerve except stylopharyngeus by glossopharyngeal nerve.
What forms the efferent arc of the gag reflex?
What connects the hard and soft palate?
What is the purpose of the soft palate?
Seals off the nasal cavity from the oral cavity, allowing breathing while cheewing. Also allows sucking.
What muscle forms the uvula?
What two bones make up the hard palate?
Horizontal plate of the palatine bone
Palatine process of the maxilla
What two muscles are found below the uvula, and what do they do?
Palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus. They depress the soft palate.
What two muscles are found above the uvula, and what do they do?
Tensor veli palatine
Levator veli palatine (more superior). They elevate the soft palate.
What does tensor veli palatine do the the palatine aponeurosis?
Makes it tighter.
What are the four muscles of the soft palate?
Tensor veli palatine
Levator veli palatine
What innervates the four muscles of the soft palate?
All by vagus except tensor veli palatine, which is by trigeminal nerve.
What do the muscles of the soft palate do aside from elevate/depress the soft palate?
Change the dimension of the auditory tube in addition to salpingopharyngeus.
What are fauces?
Space between the arches of the palatal arches (transverse dimension, not anteroposterior).