Flashcards in Lecture 30 RH Deck (53):
Where do the teeth sit in the oral cavity?
teeth are embedded in dental (alveolar) arches.
What is the joint found between the temporal bone and the mandible?
mandible articulates with temporal bone at the temperomandibular joint
What kind of joint is the temperomandibular joint?
sliding hinge joint
What do the muscles of the oral cavity assist with?
muscles help with chewing as well as forming the boundaries of the oral cavity.
Where does the temporalis muscle originate and insert?
temporalis originates at the side of the cranium and the has a tendon that attaches to the coranoid process of the mandible
Where does masseter originate and insert?
masseter attaches at the angle of the mandible and inserts onto the zygoma (part of the temporal bone and part of the zygomatic bone)
What do the temporalis and masseter muscles do when chewing?
temporalis and masseter work together to bring the mandible closer to the temporal bone when chewing
Which nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression?
facial nerve innervates muscles of facial expression
What does the orbicularis oris muscle do?
brings lips together
What is the buccinator?
Laterally there is a muscle embedded in the cheek which closes off the space between the mandible and the maxilla this muscle is called the buccinator
What is the principle regarding innervation of facial muscles?
Muscles involved in facial expression are innervated by the facial nerve
Muscles involved in mastication are innervated by the trigeminal nerve
What bones form the roof of the mouth?
Palatine process of the maxilla forms the anterior part
Posteriorly is the horizontal process of the palatine bone
What is the soft palate and where is it located?
Soft palate is located posteriorly which is formed by muscles and connective tissue and lined by mucosa.
What structures run under the mucosa of the roof of the mouth?
nerves and blood vessels run under mucosa
Where do the lesser and greater palatine arteries and nerves go in the mouth?
Lesser palatine nerve and artery project posteriorly mostly to the soft palate
Greater palatine nerve and artery run to the hard palate anteriorly and supply gingiva and mucosa of the roof of the mouth
How do the palatine nerves and arteries supply the inferior quadrant of the nasal cavity?
These arteries and nerves ultimately project through a foramen called the incisive foramen in the roof of the mouth to get to the inferior quadrant of the nasal cavity
What happens at the angle of the mandible?
Rami of the mandibles project upwards towards the temperomandibular joint
How is the mandible shape a problem and how is this problem fixed?
mandible is deficient inferiorly and this is closed up by a muscular diaphragm called the mylohyoid muscle (from mandible to hyoid)
Where do the nerves of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve run?
Medial to the rami (from the angle of the mandible) and close to the temporomandibular joint is the location where the mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve run.
What do the mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve innervate?
the tongue, teeth, and inferior alveolar nerve enters the mandible through a small foramen called the mandibular foramen to get to ther
Where does the alveolar nerve arise from and where does it go?
Alveolar nerve originates from the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve and runs through a small foramen called the mandibular foramen on the medial aspect of the ramus of the mandible and runs inside the bone towards the teeth.
How can the hyoid bone be palpated?
Hyoid bone sits in the crease between floor of our mouth and the neck. It can be palpated laterally.
What are the main sections of the tongue and how are they divided?
Tongue can be split into an anterior 2/3rds and a posterior 1/3rd by a sulcus terminalis. apex of the sulcus terminalis projects posteriorly.
What is the foramen that is found at the apex of the sulcus terminalis?
At the apex is a depression called the foramen caecum which is a remnant of the thyroglossal duct in development. (thyroid develops as an outpouching during development which drags down to the neck)
What are the arches that extend from the tongue and the pharynx called?
2 arches projecting up; one from the tongue and another from the pharynx. These arches are known as the palatopharyngeal arch and the palatoglossal arch.
What can be found between the arches of the pharynx and the tongue?
In between the palatopharyngeal and platoglossal arches are the palatine tonsils (the tonsils)
What can be found anterior and following the sulcus terminalis?
Anterior and following the sulcus terminalis are the valate (or circumvalate) papillae
What are foliate papillae and where can they be found?
Grooves on posterolateral part of the tongue called the foliate papillae and swellings between these grooves.
What papillae can be found in the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue?
Where in the papillae can taste be sensed?
papillae contain the taste buds within their walls
What nerve is the chorda tympani a branch of?
Facial nerve (7th cranial nerve)
What are filliform papillae and what is their function?
Filliform papillae are sharp and pointy and do not have taste buds. They are only their to roughen the tongue.
How is the tongue controlled?
2 sets of muscles control the tongue:
Extrinsic muscles (alter location of the tongue):
Palatoglossus (innervated by VAGUS)
Genioglossus (genial process of the posterior aspect of the mandible)
Intrinsic muscles (Alter shape of the tongue):
transverse and vertical muscle
What nerve innervates the tongue muscles?
Cranial nerve 12 (hypoglossal nerve) except for palatoglossus which is innervated by the pharyngeal branch of vagus.
What motor nerves innervate the tongue muscles?
Motor innervation is entirely by hypoglossal nerve (CN12) with the exception of palatoglossus.
How is sensory innervation of the tongue split?
Tongue is split into anterior 2/3rds and posterior 1/3rd by the sulcus terminalis
What innervates the posterior third of the tongue for special sensory innervation?
What innervates the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue for special sensory innervation?
Anterior 2/3rds from the chorda tympani which is a branch of the facial nerve innervates the tongue for taste (special sensory).
What innervates the posterior third of the tongue for general sensory innervation?
What innervates the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue for general innervation?
Lingual nerve which is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve
How many teeth do adult humans have?
Each half of the dental arches contains 8 teeth which means 32 teeth in total
What are the kinds of teeth that humans have?
canine (sharp pointing edge)
3 molars with flat cusps that are important for grinding of food
What nerves innervate the teeth?
Teeth embedded in maxilla (superiorly) are innervated by the superior alveolar nerve. (maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve)
Teeth embedded in the mandible are innervated by the inferior alveolar nerve. (mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve)
What are the 2 halves of the teeth called?
Teeth are made up of a crown and roots.
What are the layers of the crown of the tooth?
Dentin (little tubules which can transmit fluid and temperature)
Pulp (contain neurovascular supply)
Where is the vascular supply of the teeth from?
Vascular supply of the teeth is from branches of the external carotid artery.
What ages to adult teeth erupt?
Teeth erupt at about 7 years of age from an anterior to posterior direction.
Exception is the lower and upper canine (at about 11 or 12 years old) and the wisdom teeth
What is the function of salivary glands?
Salivary glands produce saliva some of which is mucous and some of which is serous. As well as enzymes
What are the kinds of salivary glands that we have?
Where is the parotid gland located?
parotid gland is superficial to the masseter, the external auditory meatus, and the auditory duct. It has a single duct that emerges from its anterior aspect which runs over the masseter and opens into the oral vestibule opposite the upper second molar tooth.
Where is the sublingual gland located?
Sits under the tongue on both sides.
Where is the submandibular gland located?
under the mandible on both sides. It wraps around the posterior edge of the hyoid muscle (diaphragm) duct projects forwards and opens into a papilla right next to the lingual frenulum.