Flashcards in Lecture 21 RH Deck (16)
What tissue does the autonomic nervous system innervate?
all organs and tissues except skeletal muscle.
What is the function of the autonomic nervous system?
It maintains homeostasis of visceral actions.
The immune system is influenced by the autonomic nervous system.
Metabolism is influenced by the autonomic nervous system.
ANS can have trophic effects on tissues.
How are sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves distinguished?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are purely distinguished by anatomy. (remember the principles of autonomic nerves)
Which spinal nerves give origin to the autonomic nervous system?
All spinal nerves except cervival spinal nerves.
Where do sympathetic nerves typically originate from?
The sympathetic trunk provides origin for most post-ganglionic nerves. Other sympathetic nerves still pass through the sympathetic trunk without synapsing.
Where are parasympathetic ganglia typically located?
within the target viscera.
How do the sypathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system work together?
Usually both work together to carry out several bodily functions. Under extreme circumstances the body reacts either with a fight/flight response or a rest/digest response.
Some tissue have on kind of innervation others have both.
How does the autonomic nervous system affect the pupil sphincter?
Thy parasympathetic nervous system controls the pupil sphincter and the SNS the pupil dilator.
What is the inferior hypogastric plexus? What does it contain?
Inferior hypogastric plexus contains most autonomic nerve supply to pelvic organs. This pathway contains thousands of axons and ganglia and mixed ANS nerves. several spinal segments of nerves converge onto the same ganglia.
What is the clinical significance of the location of the inferior hypogastric plexus?
The plexus has longer axons than usual making them vulnerable to injury during surgery. AS a result ganglia and sensory neurons could be affected leading to disruption of negative feedback mechanisms and as a result may cause urine or faecal retention.
*Methods are being developed to make nerves more visible and avoidable during surgery.
Where is the inferior hypogastric plexus located?
The inferior hypogastric plexus is a paired structure, with each situated on the side of the rectum in the male, and at the sides of the rectum and vagina in the female.
What receptors does the inferior hypogastric plexus express in the long term?
Sex Steroid Receptors
How is voiding of the bladder controlled?
Voiding of bladder is often voluntary but is also controlled by autonomic nerves.
How can rodents be used to understand autonomic innervation of the pelvis?
Mice have a single ganglion in their pelvis and so each section of this ganglion go to different locations and as a result dye can be injected and this can be followed to see where the signal ends up.
What are electroceuticals?
an alternative to pharmaceuticals that uses electric signals to modify effects of the body.