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Anatomy: Viscera and Visceral Systems > Lecture 9 RH > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 9 RH Deck (51)
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What structures surround the abdominal cavity?

Thorax superiorly

Pelvis inferiorly


What are the layers of the subcutaneous fascial compartment?

superficial fascia of anterior abdominal wall has an outer layer of superficial fascia and an inner layer of superficial fascia.


What are the names of the layers of the superficial fascial compartment?

Fatty layer is called the camper's fascia.

membranous layer is called the scarpa's fascia.


What is the parietal peritoneum?

6th layer of the abdominal wall is the serous membrane; the parietal peritoneum.


What is the visceral peritoneum?

visceral peritoneum surrounds abdominal viscera .


What are the boundaries of the abdominal cavity?

Costal margin above.

Iliac crest below.

Forms inguinal ligament
Pubic tubercle


What features do all 3 abdominal wall muscles share?

all 3 abdominal wall muscles are fleshy laterally and aponeurotic medially.

There is a relationship between muscle layers and spermatic cord.


How are the external oblique muscles arranged?

External obliques run downward and anteriorly.

Superiorly it overlaps the costal margin and extends onto the anterior surface of lower thoracic cage and merges with pec major and serratus anterior.

Posteriorly it goes as far as the thoracolumbar fascia.

anteriorly they meet at the aponeurosis in the middle at the raphe known as the linea alba..

Inferiorly the edge is free and forms the inguinal ligament. (Triangular opening before the rest attaches to pubic crest).


How are the internal oblique muscles arranged?

posteroinferomedially arranged
Meets with the other abdominal muscles from both sides at the linea alba.

Internal oblique muscles arise from the anterior half of the iliac crest and the ASIS.
Internal oblique muscles continue to arise from the lateral and lowermost 2/3rds of the inguinal ligament. The superior part of it arises from the thoracolumbar fascia.

They attach to the pubic crest. Lower most fibers arise arch then attach.


What is the deepest layer of oblique abdominal muscles?

Transverse abominus


What is the difference between external and internal oblique muscles in regards to their attachment to the costal margin?

internal oblique muscles attach directly to the costal margin. External oblique muscles lie anteriorly to it and merge with the pectorals and the serratus anterior.


How are transversus abdominus arranged?

Horizontally in arrangement.

Transverse abdominus is continuous with the diaphragm and underlies the costal margin.

Arise posteriorly from the thoracolumbar fascia.

anteriorly the transversus abdominus meet halfway accross the abdomen at the linea alba.

lowermost fibers arise from lateral 1/3 of inguinal ligament. These fibers arch and attach to the pubic crest via a conjoined tendon with the internal oblique fibers.


Where is the rectus abdominus muscle orientated?

rectus abdominus muscle is known as a divergent muscle. it originates at the pubic crest and diverges to go above the costal margin and attach to costal cartilages 5, 6, and 7.


At what levels are the tendinous divisions on the rectus abdominus muscles typically located?


xiphoid sternal joint

halfway between umbilicus and the xiphosternal joint


How are abdominal muscles arranged relative to the rectus abdominus?

all oblique muscles interact with linea alba posteriorly and anteriorly to the rectus abdominus with fibers running anteriorly and posteriorly to form the rectus sheath.


What is the difference between the upper rectus sheath and the lower rectus sheath?

The upper rectus sheath surrounds the rectus abdominis completely.

The lower rectus sheath only passes anteriorly to the rectus abdominis. Fascia transversalis lies behind the rectus abdominis.


Where do the upper and lower rectus sheath separate?

halfway between the umbilicus and the pubic crest (the same point where a tendinous separation of the rectus abdominis is)


What is the name of the fascia that lines the abdominal cavity? What layer lies deep to this fascia?

transverse fascia superficial to the parietal peritoneum.


What line lies at the point between the superior and inferior rectus sheath?

the arcuate line.


What does the posterior rectus sheath contain?

Vascular supply to the anterior abdominal wall.


Where does the neurovascular plane lie? Between what layers?

Between Internal Oblique muscles and transversus abdominus.


Which rami innervate the anterior abdominal wall muscles?

innervation by ventral rami


What spinal nerves innervate the abdominal region?

T7, 8, 9 above umbilicus

T10: umbilicus (remember this)

T11, 12: below umbilicus and above groin

L1: Groin (remember this)


Where does the internal thoracic artery run?

Internal thoracic nerve runs slightly right of the sternum


What structures does the superior epigastric artery supply?

The anterior abdominal wall muscles via the rectus sheath posteriorly.


What structures does the inferior epigastric artery supply?

anterior abdominal wall muscles inferior to the umbilicus.


What structures does the superficial epigastric artery supply?

Arises from femoral artery and runs through the femoral sheath about 1cm below inguinal ligament then goes up superficial to the inguinal ligament between the 2 layers of superficial fascia. It anastomoses with inferior epigastric artery and with the other superficial epigastric artery.


Where does the superior epigastric artery run?

through the posterior rectus sheath anastomosing within the rectus sheath. and supplying the anterior abdominal wall muscles.


Where does the superficial epigastric artery run?

runs in superficial fascia towards the umbilicus.


What blood vessel gives rise to the superior epigastric artery and where does this branching occur?

The internal thoracic artery.

This branching occurs near the inferior border of the sternum.