Flashcards in Lecture 13 DA Deck (35):
How are viscera formed?
They are formed from an invaginaltion of the coelum, inward to the cavity.
Where is pain of the parietal perotineum referred to and why?
Parietal perotineum use the neurovascular supply of the abdominal wall, and so pain is referred to the dermatomes overlying it.
Where are visceral perotineum pain referred to?
To the midline dermatomes.
How do unpaired viscera develop?
They develop within the perotineum (kid bags my spelling...) and have a perotineal (double fail) covering.
What organs are in the foregut? What are they supplied by?
Abdominal oesophagus, stomach, proximal duodenum, billiary tract, liver, pancreas, and spleen.
They are supplied by the coeliac trunk.
What organs are in the midgut? What are they supplied by?
Distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon until the transverse.
They are supplied by the superior mesentery vessels.
What organs are found in the hindgut? What are they supplied by?
Descending colon, sigmoidal colon, rectum and upper anal canal.
They are supplied by the inferior mesentery vessels.
What happen to laterally placed paired viscera?
They develop without a perotineum, including kidneys, suprarenal glands, ureters, testes and deferent ducts. They are primarlity retroperotineal.
What is meant by primarily retroperotineal?
They have no blood supply from the perotineum.
What happens to the liver, stomach and spleen during development?
Initially, they are all aligned antero-posteriorly. However, when the space within the cavity is superceded by growth, the liver travels to the right, the stomach spinds clockwise, and the spleen travels to the left.
What is the spleenorenal ligament?
The left kidney has a peritoneum anteriorly connecting to the spleen, forming the splenorenal ligament.
What is a consequence of the internal rotation of the superior mesentery artery?
It forms the C-shaped junction due to its movements.
What is meant by secondarily retroperotineal? What structures are they?
Viscera that are pushed against the wall, and their mesenteries fuse. It includes the ascending/descending colon, C-shaped duodenum, and the pancreas, except its tail.
Is the sigmoid colon retro or intraperotineal?
It is intraperotineal.
Is the C-shaped duodenum fixed or mobile?
What is fusion fascia?
Connective tissue between anterior mesentery and a retroperotineal viscera. Blood vessels are found here.
Where are the paracolic gutters found?
Medial and lateral to the ascending/descending colon.
Name the mesenteries of the intraperotineal viscera.
- Abdominal oesophagus, stomach, duodenal cap, liver, billiary tract, gall bladder, spleen and pancreas tail.
Mesoappendix - jejunum, ileum, caecum and appendix.
Transverse mesocolon - transervse colon.
Sigmoid mesocolon - sigmoid colon.
Describe the greater omentum.
It comes off the greater curvature of the stomach, hangs down, folds back up posteriorly and attaches to the underside of the transverse colon.
What is the omental bursa?
The reccess found within the greater omentum. It is filled with fat and serous fluid.
What immune function does the greater omentum have?
When an abdominal infection is present, it will wrap around the site and release immune agents.
Where is the root of the mesentery?
Found at the transverse colon, at the inferior end of the pancreas.
What is the mesoappendix?
It is the mesentery of the appendix, and takes the appendicular artery with it, ehich is a branch of the superior mesentery artery.
What is a perotineal ligament?
Connects viscera to viscera.
Where is the hepatogastric ligament found?
Within the lesser omentum.
Which perotineal ligament is found at the portal triad?
Hepatoduodenal ligament. It is also in the lesser omentum.
Which ligament is found in the greater omentum?
How many perotineal ligaments are found in the lesser omentum?
Two. Hepatogastric and hepatoduodenal.
How can you enter the omental bursa?
Through the hepatoduodenal ligament.
What does the gastrophrenic ligament connect?
Stomach to the diaphragm. Found on the greater curvature, around the fundus area.
What does the gastrolineal ligament connect?
Stomach to spleen. Greater curvature.
What does the gastrocolic ligament connect?
Stomach to colon. Found in the greater omentum.
How can you enter the lesser sac from the grater sac?
Inferior to the liver, around near the lesser omentum is the epiploic foramen. Greater sac is found on the outside, while the lesser sac is the contents of the greater omentum and what lies posterior to the lesser omentum.
What connects the spleen and kidney?