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What structures does the paramesonephric tube form?

Vagina, uterus and uterine tubes.


What structures does the mesonephric tube form?

Penis and scrotum.


What two embryonic structures form the gonads in males and females?

Mesonephric tube for males and paramesonephric tubes for females.


How does the mesonephric/paramesonephric tube develop?

Two tubes that merge at the midline, bringing the blood supply to the midline, making it bilateral.


What is the descent of the ovaries preceded by?



Where are the ovaries found?

In a depression on the lateral pelvic wall, between the external and internal iliac vessels, and close to the obturator nerve.


What happens in an abnormal descent of the ovaries called?

Its descent can be arrested or can descend too far, as far as the inguinal canal or labia majora. Similar can happen to the testes. Called Imperfect descent of the ovaries.


What is the clinical significance of the ovaries being close to the obturator nerve?

Disease of the ovary can irritate the obturator nerve, and one sign is when a patient has medial thigh pain (which obturator supplies), but has no knee or hip pathology (no somatic disease). This is a consequence of referred pain.


What plane do the ovaries lie on?

It lies on the plane connecting the tip of the pubic bone to the tip of the coccyx. They can be palpated.


Can the ovaries be palpated?



What is the broad ligament?

A sheet of peritomeum to which connects the ovaries to the uterus.


What is the mesovarium?

Found along the superior border of the ovaries, it connects the ovaries to the broad ligament above.


What attaches the ovaries to the side of the uterus?

The ovarian ligament, found medial to the ovaries, and passes through the broad ligament.


What is the suspensory ligament and where is it found?

It connects the ovaries to the posterior wall, and is found at the tip of the ovaries superiorly. It is formed from the broad ligament.


Where can prolapse occur in women around the pevlis?

Into the recto-uterine pouch. In severe cases, it can be into the peritoneum, a posterior fornix.


What are the 5 components of the fallopian tube?

-Intramural fallopian tube (within the wall of the uterus.
-Ithsmus, the straight part.
-Ampulla, longest, widest and most toruous part.
-Infundibulum, the terminal end.
-Fimbria, hair-like structure at the infundibulum.


Where does fertilisation take place?

At the ampulla.


What happens at the infundibulum?

Fertilised egg conveyed via peristalsis and cilliary action.


What happens when the ova is released?

The fimbria directs it into the fallopian tube.


What is peritonitis?

Infected material can pass through the vagina, through the uterus and into the abdominal peritoneal cavity, causing an infection, called peritonitis.


What is an abnormal pregnancy called, when does it occur, and where can it occur?

It occurs when the egg implants somewhere other than the ampulla. Can implant into the uterine tube. Called ectopic pregnancy.


What is so dangerous about ectopic pregnancy?

It can rupture the tube, causing serious, life threatening haemorrhage.


What shape is the uterus, and where is the cervix found?

It is pear shaped, and has two os (openings), called internal and external os. Internal is found superiorly, and external is distal. The cervix is found in between the two.


What is the ovarian fimbria?

A fimbria strand that anchors the ovary to the fimbria.


What is the cornua?

The point where the uterine tubes enter the uterus.


Where is the fundus of the uterus?

The very top.


What happens to the uterus when pregnant?

The walls thicken, and the size dramatically increases. The endometrial line thickens, and the uterus rises into the abdominal cavity.


Where is the uterus at 3 months pregnant?

suprapubic level.


Where is the uterus at 6 months pregnant?

Iliac crest.


Where is the uterus at 8 months pregnant?