Flashcards in Lecture 28 DA Deck (61):
Which bony process makes up most of the nose?
Frontal process of the maxilla.
What is found at the nose midline, seperating it in two?
The septal cartilage.
What encloses the nasal cavity?
Two lateral cartilages, one on each side.
What forms the nostril inferiorly?
Two alar cartilages, one for each nostril.
What is a nare?
What is the nasal septum formed by?
Which bone is found at the nose midline, directly posterior to the septum?
Where is the ethmoid bone?
Directly above the vomer bone, to which it attaches.
What can be found superior to the ethmoid bone?
The cribiform plate.
What is found superior to the cribiform plate, and what sits next to it?
The crista gali, and the olfactory bulb sits beside it.
Where is the posterior nare located?
At the very back of the nostril cavity at the sphenoid bone.
Which bone are the three conchae found on?
What happens if you fracture the cribiform plate?
Leads to infection, haemorrhage and rhinorrhoea.
Does the medial wall of the nasal cavity have any projections?
What is the difference between the superficial layer of the nostril versus the nasal cavity?
Nasal membrane is highly vascular and mucous, whereas the nostril has hair and keratinised skin.
Why is the nasal cavity so highly vascular? What significance does this have for athsmatics?
Blood vessels allow air to warm to room temperature. Cold air makes smooth muscle spasm, bronchioles with no cartilaginous support can spasm in athsmatics. It also humidifies the air.
How much of the nasal cavity is ciliated?
What is the purpose of cilia in the hasal cavity, and how can they be damaged?
They move towards the nasal cavity, to remove pathogens. They are damaged by cigarette smoke.
Where is the olfactory area, and why is it so named?
It is the superior space (top 1/3rd) of both the medial and lateral wall of the nasal cavity. Olfactory nerves pass here.
Where is the nostril vestibule?
The area lined with hair and keratinised skin.
Which area of the nose is most likely damaged in a nosebleed?
The nasal cavity as its vascular.
Name the three turbinates, and the wall they hang off.
Superior, middle, and inferior turbinates, hanging off the lateral wall.
What is the purpose of the turbinates?
Produce turbulence as air is breathed, allowing it to be closer to body temperature and higher humidity.
What is a consequence of the nasal cavity having such small space?
It can easily be congested, especially when infected/inflammed.
What is found beneath each concha?
A meatus, named after its respective concha.
What can be found in the nasal meati?
Superior and middle have openings to the paranasal sinuses, while the inferior has an opening to the lacrima.
What are the four main groups of paranasal sinuses?
Are the paranasal sinuses lined with mucosa?
Where is the frontal sinus?
It is most anterior at around the top of the nose and under the eyes.
Where is the ethmoid sinus?
It is posterior to the frontal sinus and a collection of small cavities.
Where is the sphenoid sinus?>
Posterior to the ethmoid sinus and slightly inferior. It is one big cavity.
Where are the maxillary sinuses?
Lateral to the cheekbones, on either side of the cheeck.
Which of the paranasal sinuses are in the ophthalmic region?
Frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid.
What happens when paranasal sinuses of the ophthalmic region are blocked?
The pain is referred to the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, so pain will be felt in the ophthalmic region.
What happens when the maxillary sinus is blocked?
The pain will be referred to the maxillary region of the trigeminal nerve, and pain will be felt in the maxilla/cheek.
What is a danger of molar removal in terms of the maxilla region?
When molars are removed, they can fracture the maxilla, and and cause an infection of the maxillary sinus.
Where do the ophthalmic paranasal sinuses sit relative to the nasal cavity?
What can be said about the maxillary sinus concerning its drainage? How can it be improved?
It drains less well, and is easier for bacteria to infect it. Patient at a slight decline allows for better drainage.
Where is the opening of the maxillary sinus found?
On the medial wall.
If you have a cold, and are a side sleeper, the more superior nostril is unblocked, while the inferior one is blocked. Explain why.
Superior nostril is above the level of the opening for the sinus and will drain well. Inferior nostril is under the level of the opening and will not drain properly.
To which meati do the paranasal cavities open to?
Only the superior and middle meati.
Where does the frontal sinus drain to?
To the middle meatus, to the hiatus semilunaris, at its superior point.
Where does the sphenoid sinus open to?
To the superior meatus, via the sphenoethoidal recess.
Where are the openings for the posterior ethmoid sinuses found?
Beneath the sphenoethmoidal recess, to the superior meatus.
Where does the maxillary sinus open to?
To the hiatus semilunaris, its inferior point.
Where is the opening for the frontal sinus?
At the frontonasal duct.
Where do anterior air cells drain to?
To the frontonasal duct.
Where do middle air cells drain to?
To the bulla ethmoidalis.
Where is the bulla ethmoidalis found?
Posterior to the hiatus semilunaris.
What drains to the inferior meatus?
Inferior meatus has an orifice of the nasolacrimal duct, which connects to the lacrimal sac via the lacrimal duct.
Where is the lacrimal gland found?
Superolaterally to the eye in the orbital cavity.
Where is the lacrimal sac found?
If you split the nasal cavity into quadrants using an X, what supplies the posterior quadrant?
Both walls are supplied by the sphenopalatine artery. Fracture here can cause a high pressure nose bleed.
If you split the nasal cavity into quadrants using an X, what supplies the superior quadrant?
Supplied by the ethmoidal artery, which is a branch of the ophthalmic artery.
If you split the nasal cavity into quadrants using an X, what supplies the inferior quadrant?
Supplied by the greater palatine artery, which also supplies the upper jaw.
If you split the nasal cavity into quadrants using an X, what supplies the anterior quadrant?
Supplied by the superior labial arteries.
What supplies the ala of the nose?
Lateral nasal branch of the facial artery.
What is the nasal cavity drained by?
Submucosal plexus via ophthalmic, sphenopalatine and facial veins.
If you split the nasal cavity from the anterior nare to the cribiform plate with a line, what is the nerve supply to the superior/anterior and inferior/posterior half?
Anterior/superior half is supplied by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve.
Posterior/inferior half is supplied by the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve.
Which nerve is the ophthalmic region of the nasal cavity supplied by?
Anterior ethmoidal nerve, which is a branch of the nasociliary nerve, which is a branch of the ophthalmic nerve, which composes the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve.