Flashcards in Lecture 22 RH Deck (35):
What part of the urethra is the widest part of the urethra in young males?
In a young male the prostatic urethra is the widest part of the urethra in a young male but it narrows with aging as the prostate gland hypertrophies.
How does the vas deferans and ductus deferans join into the ejaculatory duct?
ductus deferens joins with the ejaculatory duct through the ampulla.
Where do the prostatic nerves come from?
They are branches of the pudendal nerve
What is the clinical significance of the prostate's position?
Prostatic nerves are prone to injury during surgery (40% of cases there will be some loss of fecal and micturition control)
What key divisions does the prostate contain?
Prostate is divided into zones when imaged. Median lobe is replicated by the transition zone. Periphery is referred to as the peripheral zone this location tends to be the origin of cancer cells. Transition zone is the site of hypertrophy (benign prostatic hypertrophy)
What tissue is the penis made up of?
penis is made up of cavernous tissue (made up of spaces.
What structures does the penis contain?
Paired corpora cavernosa (large number of spaces for blood vessels)
Corpus spongiosum (around penile urethra)
What is the normal anatomical position of the penis?
anatomical position of the penis is erect.
Where do the corpora cavernosa originate?
corpora cavernosa originate at the bulbs of the penis.
What penile structures does the clitoris also contain?
Clitoris has bulbs as well
What are the difficult narrowings that must be navigated through to get to the bladder via the urethra?
pelvic floor (membranous urethra) and the prostatic urethra which contains a 90 degree angle between them.
What surgical intervention can be used for people with erection problems?
inflatable penile prosthesis can be used for people with severe problems with erection problems.
What are the muscles from which levator ani extends that are found on the wall of the pelvis:?
piriformis and obturator internis.
What are the boundaries of the anal and urethral triangles?
pubic symphysis, ischial rami and ischial tuberosity in anterior triangle.
Anal triangle is angled posteriorly and is bound by the ischial tuberosities, the sacrotuberous ligament, and the coccyx + sacrum..
What is the function of the perineum regarding the genitals?
perineum is the site of anchorage of the penis and the clitoris.
What is the significance of the angling of the vagina and the urethra in females?
Anterior angling of the vagina and the urethra in females acts as a physiological sphincter.
This arrangement occurs in males as well as females in the anal canal and this happens in the posterior direction.
What is the cloaca and why is it important
during early development there is a common ejection chamber for urogenital system and GI tract known as the cloaca. It is made up of endoderm and contains a cloacal sphincter around it with skin around it containing a rich sensory nerve supply. This separates during development.
How does the urogenital triangle maintain structural support?
urogenital triangle urogenital triangle obtains support from the sheet of fascia and muscle called the perineal membrane. It has a deep perineal pouch above with skeletal muscle and attachments of external genitalia.
What structure surrounds the urethra in males and females?
Both males and females have an external urethral sphincter of slow twitch fibers.
What additional structures do females have around their urethra and vagina?
Females have additional components at the sphincter (sphincter urethrovaginalis which contains extensions around the vagina)
What is the difference between the support provided by the urethra/bladder to the vagina and the support provided by the muscles of the deep perineal pouch?
Bladder and the urethra provide passive support to the vagina, whereas the sphincters of the deep perineal pouch provide muscular support.
What would result of the pelvic floor was damaged?
Damage to pelvic floor would result in incontinence of faeces and urine.
What is the perineal body and where is it located?
in the center of the perineum it is the site of attachment for bulbospongiosus muscle and the anal sphincter.
What does the superficial perineal pouch contain?
Contains urogenital muscles and the roots for the external genitalia.
Where are erectile tissue found in the penis?
corpora cavernosa and spongiosum.
What are the parts of the clitoris?
contains crura (homologous to corpora cavernosa)
bulbs (homologous to that of males)
Which of the structures of the clitoris are erectile?
The crura, the bulbs, and the glans.
What is the result of a ruptured urethra?
Ruptured urethra could cause extravasation of urine into extraperitoneal tissue of the pelvic cavity if the damage is at the level of the apex of the prostate (eg. pelvic fracture).
it could also result in extravasation of urine into superficial perineal space if the damage is at the level of the bulb of the penis.
What are the labia minora/majora homologous to in males?
labia majora is homologous to the scrotum in the male.
labia minora is homologous to the spongy urethra.
What are the components of the vulva?
glans of the clitoris is normally just anterior to the urethra, however, sometimes the urethra can open up onto the vagina more posteriorly.
frenulum contains folds between the clitoris and the urethra.
vestibule is located under the urethra between labia minora.
hymen overlies the vagina.
What is the function of the fat around the anal canal?
fatty tissue located around the anal canal allows it to distend when faeces accumulate there. This fatty tissue also allows passage of branches of the pudendal nerve to the anal canal.
What is the clinical significance of the fat around the anal canal?
abscesses could form in the fatty tissue that could impinge on the pudendal nerve branch.
What sphincters are important for faecal continence?
smooth muscle surrounds the anal canal.
puborectalis kinks the anal canal
internal and external anal sphincters.
What are the components of the external anal sphincter?
superficial part connects to the perineal body and goes on to forma raphe that passes to the tip of the coccyx. This stabilizes the perineal body.
finally, the subcutaneous part of the anal canal.