Flashcards in Lecture 6 RH Deck (33):
How do breast tumours appear in people with breast cancer?
In young women with dense breasts, breast tumours can often damage suspensory ligament and as a result causes wrinkled skin above it which can be detected on a mammogram. It can also cause nipples to be inverted.
How can a metastatic breast tumour be diagnosed?
Breast cancer tends to metastasize towards axillary lymph nodes but it can also go medially towards parasternal nodes or to the lymphatic vessels towards the abdomen. At these locations it is possible to palpate tumours.
Can men get breast cancer?
Men have no glandular development and small duct development with little fat. But men can still get breast cancer.
Where is the anatomical position of the left atrium and ventrical relative to the rest of the heart?
left atrium sits behind the heart and is the base which the heart sits on. Left ventricle is also behind and the apex of the heart and contains mostly the right ventricle and interventricular groove.
What are the grooves of the heart called?
atrioventricular grooves (left and right)
Interventricular groove (anteriorly and posteriorly)
Why is it important to understand the location of the grooves of the heart?
They are very important for the location of the coronary arteries.
Where does the superior vena cava bring deoxygenated blood from?
From anywhere above the level of the diaphragm
Where does the inferior vena cava bring deoxygenated blood from?
From anywhere below the level of the diaphragm.
Why is the diaphragm a landmark of where the vena cavae drain?
Inferior vena cava penetrates central tendon of the diaphragm making it the one that goes below the diaphragm.
What is the crista terminalis?
crista terminalis is a ridge that runs perpendicular to the muscular pectinati and separates rough walled muscular pectinati from the smooth wall of the right atrium
What is the inter-atrial septum and what does it have on it as a remnant from a structure during embryonic development?
Inter-atrial septum is the wall between the atria and it contains the fossa ovalis which is a remnant of the foramen ovali.
What is the sulcus terminalis?
sulcus terminalis is a structure formed by the crista terminalis' folding inwards.
What goes through the coronary sinus?
cornary sinus contains all the coronary blood and brings it back into the heart
How does blood move from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
through the atrioventricular orifice which contains the tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve)
What is the auricle?
The auricle is a projection of the right atrium in front of the aorta and pulmonary trunk and it is a remnant of heart development and contains muscular pectinati.
What causes the bulk of ventricular filling?
Most of ventricular filling is done due to the relaxation of the ventricles rather than contraction of the atria.
What is the function of the chordae tendinae?
chordae tendinae are attached to papillary muscles and are important to prevent the valves from flapping the other way when the ventricle contracts.
What is the function of the trabeculae carnae?
trabeculae carnae are the muscular walls of the ventricles. Analagous to the musculi pectinati.
What is the function of the septomarginal band?
septomarginal band (aka moderator band) connects the anterior papillary muscle to the medial interventricular wall. The electric conduction travels through this band allowing papillary muscles to contract at the right time.
Where do the right and left pulmonary arteries arise from and where do they branch?
right and left pulmonary arteries branch right under the aortic arch from the pulmonary trunk.
What valves are present in the pulmonary trunk? Do they have chordae tendinae?
semilunar valves. They have no chordae tendinae and instead rely on gravity to close.
Which chamber of the heart do the pulmonary veins enter?
left and right pulmonary veins enter the heart through the left atrium.
does the left atrium contain an auricle? Where is it located?
Yes, it is anterior to the great vessels.
What valve is found between left atrium and ventricle?
left atrioventricular orifice is guarded by a bicuspid (left atrioventricular) valve. It is also known as the mitral valve.
Is the bicuspid valve controlled by papillary muscles?
Why does the left ventricle produce a lot of blood pressure relative to the other chambers of the heart?
Left ventricle is much more thicker walled than any other chamber of the heart. (Thickest myocardium)
How does the aortic semilunar valve work?
aortic semilunar valve works in the same way as the pulmonary semilunar valve.
What does the ductus arteriosis become in adulthood?
What does the foramen ovale become in adulthood?
What causes the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovalis change after birth?
First expansion of the lungs causes them to change.
What is the function of the ductus arteriosus in fetuses?
the ductus arteriosus shunts blood from the right ventricle into the descending aorta.
What happens to the respiratory and circulatory system during birth?
At birth difference in pressure between atmosphere and the lungs causes air to move into the lungs and the lungs expand and so hormones (eg bradykinin) are released which act on smooth muscle of ductus artereosus and foramen ovale.