Flashcards in Lecture 26 DA Deck (82):
How many bones can be found in the skull?
What are the joints in the skull like?
They are immobile and called sutures.
What is the base of the cranium called?
What bone covers the parietal lobe, and how many are there?
The parietal bone. There are two.
What bone covers the frontal lobe, and how many are there?
The frontal bone. There are two.
What bone covers the occipital lobe, and how many are there?
Occipital bone. There is one.
What bone covers the temporal lobe, and how many are there?
The temporal bone. There are two.
Where is the sphenoid bone, and what does it do? How many does the skull have?
One sphenoid bone under the frontal plate, and anterior to the temporal plate. Gives structure to the inside of the skull. There is only one.
Where is the ethmoid bone, and how many are there.
There is one ethmoid bone at the base of the frontal bone.
How many maxilla bones does the skull have and where is it?
There are two of them, and it is the upper jaw, up to but not including the cheekbone (zygomatic bone), and bilaterally to the top of the nose.
How many zygomatic bones does the skull have and where is it?
There are two of them, and they are the cheekbones, lateral to the maxilla.
Where is the mandible found?
Inferior to the maxilla, it is the lower jaw bone.
Name 5 small bones within the skull, and how many of them there are.
2 inferior conchae
They are found particularly within the nasal cavity.
What is the name of the suture connecting the two parietal bones?
What is the name of the suture connecting the parietal bone to the frontal bone?
Coronal, most anterior.
What is the name of the suture connecting the occipital bone to the parietal bone?
Lambdoidal, most posterior.
What is the telencephalon?
What is the Metencephalon?
Cerebellum and pons.
What is the myelencephalon?
What does the brain stem do, and is it protected by the skull?
It is responsible for unconscious acts and is protected by the skull.
What are the three fossae of the cranial floor?
Anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossa.
What covers the superior orbits?
The orbital plate of the frontal bone.
Where is the sphenois bone found in relation to the three cranial fossae?
It is found posterior to the anterior cranial fossa.
What does the sphenoid bone look like?
It looks like a winged insect and the superior edge of the wing is called the lesser wing of the sphenoid. Inferior edge is greater wing.
What is found between the two orbital plates?
The ethmoid bone.
What is the cribiform plate, and what passes through it?
It is part of the ethmoid bone and has little hones for nerves to pass through from the nasal cavity.
What seperates the anterior and middle cranial fossa?
The sphenoid bone.
What structure is the floor of the middle cranial fossa?
The temporal bone.
What is the petrous temporal bone and what does it house?
Inferiorly it is a fat portion of the temporal bone and houses the cochlea.
What is lateral to the petrous temporal bone?
The parietal bone.
Where is the sella turcica found and what does it look like? What is its purpose?
It is found in between the two wings of the sphenoid bone and looks like a turkish saddle, hence its name. It is associated with the pituitary gland.
What is contained within the posterior cranial fossa?
The cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata.
It the petrous temporal bone within theposterior cranial fossa?
Yes, but only its inferior border.
What makes up the floor of the posterior cranial fossa?
Basilar, condylar and squamous portions of the occipital bone
Mastoid process of the temporal bone
Some of the parietal laterally
Are all cranial nerves paired?
Do cranial nerve go rostral to caudal or caudal to rostral?
They go rostral to caudal.
ie I is most rostral and XII is most caudal.
Where do cranial nerves I and II arise?
From within the brain.
Where do cranial nerves III - XII arise from?
From the brain stem.
Where do all cranial nerves exit besides IV?
All exit from the ventral surface.
Where does cranial nerve IV exit?
Exits dorsally. It circles around to reach the superior orbital fissure.
What are the sensory cranial nerves?
I, II, VIII.
What are the motor cranial nerves?
III, IV, VI, XI, XII.
Which cranial nerves are mixed?
V, VII, IX, X.
What does the olfactory nerve do?
Sense of smell, its a special sensory nerve.
Where does the olfactory nerve exit?
Exits from the cribiform plate.
How does the olfactory nerve begin and end?
It begins within the brain as the olfactory tract, then becomes olfactory bulb before exiting through the cribiform plate, where it becomes olfactory nerve.
What does the optic nerve do?
Vision, it is a special sensory nerve.
Where does the optic nerve exit?
Through the optic canal of the sphenoid bone.
Where does everything passing/exiting the orbit to the cranial cavity pass through?
Through a hole in the sphenoid bone.
What is the optic chasm?
The point where the two optic nerves communicate.
Does one optic nerve control one eye?
No, each optic nerve controls half of each eye.
Name the six oculomotor muscles.
Superior rectus, inferior rectus.
Medial rectus, lateral rectus.
Superior oblique, inferior oblique.
Which cranial nerves control oculomotion?
Nerves III, IV and VI and they all work together.
Where do nerves responsible for oculomotion exit?
Exit through the superior orbital fissure between the two wings of sphenoid.
What else can be found in the superior orbital fissure?
The orbital canal.
What does the trigeminal nerve do?
Somatic sensory, and motor to muscles of mastication.
Where does V1 of the trigeminal nerve exit? What is the division called?
Exits through the superior orbital fissure and is called the ophthalmic division.
Where does V2 of the trigeminal nerve exit? What is the division called?
Exits through the foramen rotundum, and is called the maxillary division.
Where does V3 of the trigeminal nerve exit? What is the division called?
Exits through the foramen ovale, and is called the mandibular division.
Does the trigeminal nerve innervate the entire skull?
No, only the face, and anterior half od the cranium. The rest is by C2 spinal nerve.
What is the visceral afferent function of the facial nerve?
Has parasympathetic visceral afferent to glands in the face such as sublingual and lacrimal.
Where does the facial nerve exit?
Through the internal acoustic meatus.
What is the motor function of the facial nerve?
Innervates muscles of facial expression.
What is the visceral sensory function of the facial nerve?
Has visceral sensory to anterior 2/3rds of the tongue.
What are the 5 terminal branches of the facial nerve?
Way to remember positions of the terminal branches of the facial nerve.
Put hand on your face, pinkie at the temple, and thumb at the neck.
Pinkie is the temporal nerve, index, middle and ring finger on the cheek are (in order) zygomatic, buccal and marginal madibular nerves.
Thumb is cervical nerve.
What does the vestibulocochlear nerve do?
Responsible for hearing and balance.
Where does the vestibulocochlear nerve exit?
Through the internal acoustic meatus.
What is the sensory function of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Sensory to posterior 1/3rd of the tongue, pharynx, middle ear and carotid body.
What is the visceral function of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Visceral parasympathetic innervation to the parotid gland.
What is the motor function of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Motor function to the stylopharyneus.
Where does the glossopharyngeal nerve exit?
Through the jugular foramen.
What is the glossopharyngeal nerve involved in?
What is the visceral motor function of the vagus nerve (name 5).
It is mostly autonomic to the soft palate, pharynx, larynx, opper oesophagus, and one tongue muscle (palatoglossus).
What is the somatic sensory function of the vagus nerve?
Pharynx and larynx.
What is the visceral sensory function of the vagus nerve?
Taste and general baro-receptors.
Where does the vagus nerve exit?
Through the jugular foramen.
What is the funciton of the spinal accessory nerve?
Motor input to the sternomastoid muscle and upper trapezius.
Where are the nuclei of the spinal accessory nerve found, and where does the nerve travel before it exits?
The nucleus is in the upper 5-6 cervical region of the spinal cord, enters the cranium through the foramen magnum, then travels with cranial nerve X (vagus) roots and exits through the jugular foramen.
Where does the spinal accessory nerve exit?
Jugluar foramen with vagus nerve.
What does the hypoglossal nerve do?
Motor innervation to intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue, except palatoglossus.