Flashcards in Lecture 20 RH Deck (50)
Where do the ovaries initially develop?
Ovaries develop from non-differentiated gonads on posterior wall between abdomen and the pelvis and descend with the assistance of the gubernaculum
What is the post developmental structure that forms from the gubernaculum?
Round ligament of the uterus and ligament of ovary to the labia majora.
What is an imperfect descent in relation to the ovary?
Ovary may reside higher up in the abdominal cavity or too low into the inguinal canal or the labia majora. This is known as an imperfect descent of the ovary.
What is the function of the ovaries?
Has both exocrine and endocrine roles (oestrogen and progesterone +relaxin)
What is the function of relaxin?
relaxation of pelvic ligaments so that baby can pass through birth canal.
Why is the result of diseases relating to the ovary and where is the pain referred to?
Inflammation or cancer of the ovary would cause impingement of obdurator nerve and this causes referred pain to the medial thigh
Where exactly are the ovaries located?
ovaries lie approximately on the posterior pelvic wall at the horizontal plane. It can be palpated at that position.
*between pubic symphysis and coccyx is the horizontal plane.
How are the ovaries held in place?
ovaries are held by peritoneal folds that form the broad ligament
What structure within the broad ligament provides the support of the pelvic viscera?
broad ligament support is provided by the blood vessels contained within it.
How are the ovaries attached to the broad ligament?
Broad sheet above the pelvic viscera is the broad ligament. This ligament is attached to ovaries via the mesovarium.
What is the function of the the suspensory ligament?
suspensory ligament contains the blood vessels to the ovaries and it provides support to the ovaries as well..
Where does the ovary typically prolapse into and why does this happen?
ovary may prolapse into rectouterine pouch (posterior fornix) due to the laxity of the support.
What are the main parts of the uterine tubes?
What is the intramural part of the uterine tubes?
The most medial part of the uterine tube found at the wall of the uterus at the uterine OS (opening) and is very narrow.
What does the isthmus look like?
Isthmus is the straightest part of the uterine tube
What is the ampulla?
Widest and longest part of the uterine tube and is the part of the uterine tube where the sperm meets the egg
What is the infundibulum?
infundibulum is the first portion of the uterine tube and conveys the egg into the ampulla.
How does the egg move through the uterine tubes?
ciliary action and peristalsis
Why is it that infection of the vagina can spread into the peritoneum?
Uterine tubes open into the peritoneal cavity and the opening is known as the abdominal os. Infection can travel from the vagina into the peritoneum via this pathway.
What is the function of the fimbriae?
They waft the ovary into the uterine tube (infundibulum). It also holds the ovary to the uterine tube.
What is an ectopic pregnancy?
ectopic pregnancy occurs when ova are released into the peritoneal cavity and implantation typically occurs in the ampulla resulting in rupture of the walls and is typically life threatening.
What are the sections of the uterus?
Where do the uterine tubes meet the uterus?
uterine tubes connect with uterus at the point where the fundus meets the uterine body.
At what level is the uterus up to during pregnancy?
endometrial lining gets thicker and wall of the uterus.
Pregnant uterus rises above pelvic lining into the abdomen.
at about 3 months it reaches the suprapubic level.
At about 6 months it is at the iliac crest
At 8 months it is at the xiphisternum
What are the parts of the cervix?
Supra vaginal part
What is the normal positioning of the uterus?
posterior to the bladder and anteflexed above the bladder.
What causes variations in position of the uterus and ovaries relative to the vagina?
laxity in the mesovarium and the broad ligament
What are the supports that hold the uterus in place?
Cervix (uterus is best supported at the cervix.)
The levator ani
The broad ligament
lateral transverse cervical ligament
What is the result of laxity in uterine supports?
Laxity can result in prolapse.