Flashcards in Lecture 6 DA Deck (31):
Why are dense breasts an issue in mammograms?
Tumours are harder to visualise by mammogram in dense breasts.
What is the effect of breast cancer on suspensory ligaments, and what is a consequence of this?
They are damaged by cancerous growth. This can cause dimpled skin and can invert the nipple.
Describe the pathway a metastasizing cell will take once it enters the lymphatic system.
It enters through many lymph nodes before it reaches the veinous system. Can metastasize at these lymph nodes.
What can be said about breast tissue in males?
Males still have a minimal amount of breast tissue, mammary glands, however they don't ever fully develop (normally). With hormonal influence, they can.
Why can males get breast cancer?
They have a small amount of mammary glands and low duct development, however, this allows for possible tumour growth.
What is found between two ventricles and between an atrium and ventricle?
Between two ventricles is the interventricular groove.
Between an atrium and a ventricle is the atrioventricular groove.
Anterior and posterior grooves for both.
What structure of the heart is dominantly seen in situ?
Is the apex of the heart anterior or posterior?
What does the superior vena cava ultimately drain?
Everything above the diaphragm.
After the inferior vena cava pierces the central tendon, does it have any branches? Why is this so?
It has no branches superior to the central tendon. This is because it only drains below the diaphragm, and the superior vena cava is responsible for above the diaphragm.
What is the name of the rough muscular wall in the interior of the atria?
What borders the musculi pectinati? What is its appearance?
Crista terminalis. It has a smooth appearance, unlike the rough musculi pectinati.
What is found directly exterior to the crista terminalis? Why is this important clinically?
The sulcus terminalis. It is clinically important, as it is probably the only landmark for the sinoatrial node.
What is the foramen ovali, and what is its purpose? What does it become in adults? What does its repair resemble?
It is a foramen found in foetal (yes, foetal, not fetal. I know foetal doesn't have as much freedom, but hold the urge) development. It allows blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation so as not to waste energy.
It becomes the fossa ovalis in adults. When it closes, it resembles a wound repair.
What is the coronary sinus, and where is it found?
It is what drains the heart of its deoxygenated blood, and is direct. It is found within the right atrium, between the fossa ovalis and atrioventricular orifice.
What is the auricle, and where is it found?
It is a remnant of heart tissue, found at the base of the pulmonary trunk. It is a consequence of heart development.
What is the main driver of moving blood from the atria to the ventricles?
Only 10% of blood movement is due to atrial contraction. The rest is due to suction created by the ventricle expanding.
What are chordae tenidae, and how many are on each side of the heart?
They are fine, string-like tendons that anchor the valves of the atrioventricular orifice. There are three for the tricuspid (right), and two for the bicuspid/mitral (left).
What are papillary muscles?
Finger-like muscles projecting off the muscle wall, to which chordae tendinae anchor to.
What is the trabeculae carnae?
The rough muscle found within the interior of ventricles (the same as musculi pectinati of atria, different name).
What is the septomarginal band, and what is its significance?
It connects the anterior papillary muscles with the medial wall of the heart, allowing the contraction signal to conduct through, allowing a synchronised heart-beat.
What valve is found prior to pulmonary trunk, and how is it different from the tricuspid/mitral/bicuspid?
It is the pulmonary semilunar valve, and unlike the atrioventricular valves, it has no chordae tendinae.
What side does the heart sit on?
The heart sits on the left atrium.
How many pulmonary veins are there?
Four total, two left, and two right.
What is the right atrioventricular valve called?
What is the left atrioventricular valve called?
Bicuspid valve, also called mitral valve.
What valve precedes the aorta?
Aortic semilunar valve.
Describe the foetal (*bald eagle screech*) circulation.
Blood bypasses the pulmonary circulation. Oxygen instead comes from the pacenta via the liver. Foramen ovali bypasses the pulmonary circulation, as does ductus arteriosis, which is found above the pulmonary trunk, which communicates with the aorta for further bypass.
What is the aortic vestibule?
A swelling found at the base of the aorta (interior).
What happens to the foetal (sounds like this word needs some freedom aye?) circulation after birth?
Atmospheric pressure causes expansion of the lungs, which means airflow within. This increases the pressure in the left atrium which closes the foramen ovali. It also means the release of hormones which close the ductus arteriosis.