Medical Issues Cardiovascular Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Cardiovascular Pathology Deck (25):
1

heart failure

decrease in cardiac output
-heart has developed an insufficient heart pump
hear failure can be
-left
-right
-acute
-chronic
acute is immediately life threatening
chronic heart failure displays gradual but systemic failure

2

heart failure S/S

cyanosis
shortness of breath
low BP

3

myocardial ischemia
-S/S
-may be cause by

decreased blood supply to the myocardium
S/S
-angina
-dyspnea
-snycope
coronary artery disease can cause this
-the myocardium can become ischemic and necrotic causing a myocardial infarction

4

myocardial infarction
-S/S

most MI's happen during moderate to heavy activity
S/S
-angina
-fatigue
-dizziness
-syncope
quick response and referral is necessary

5

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

enlargement of the heart
-general
-left ventricle
leads to
-heart failure
-ischemic damage
-fatal arrhythmia
pathological
-LV wall thickness > 15mm
leading cause of SCD

6

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy S/S

syncope
angina
dyspnea
murmur that increases with Valsalva Maneuver
family history

7

valve disorders
-stenosis or prolapse
-sports participation

stenosis or prolapse
-stenosis: narrowing of the valve; restricts blood flow
-prolapse: allows backflow of blood
often allowed to participate in sports
may result in arrhythmias
-withheld from sports

8

MVP

mitral valve prolapse
most common valve abnormality

9

paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)

intermittently rapid resting HR (>150 bpm)
attack: palpitations, anxiety, dyspnea, chest pain, syncope
may last several minutes or hours
not dangerous

10

Marfan's Syndrome

genetic defect that leads to abnormalities in the body's connective tissue
signs
-tall stature and long extremities
-pectus deformity
-scoliosis
-spontaneous pneumothorax
-myopic (nearsighted)
80-90% will develop fatal artery abnormalities

11

Marfan's Syndrome complications

Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
Aortic Valve Disease
Aortic Rupture
-vessel walls weaken and dilate

12

Marfan's diagnosis

hard
complete family hx is important

13

commotio cordis

sudden blow to the chest
during repolarization
15% resuscitation rate without immediate AED application

14

congenital abnormalities of coronary arteries

abnormal origin of the left main coronary artery
-may cause a "kinking" of the artery or force it to pass through the aorta and pulmonary artery
--blood flow is restricted to the heart tissue
S/S
-Chest pain
-arrhythmias
-syncope

15

congenital abnormalities of coronary arteries

Hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the R and L circumflex coronary arteries
absence of the left coronary artery
myocardial bridging
-artery goes through tissue instead of over the top
testing
-ECG
-treadmill stress test (if both are +, further investigate)
coronary angiography

16

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

blood clot lodged in a vein
results in venous blockage
most common in the lower leg
S/S
-limb pain and swelling
Dx
-ultrasound
Tx
-anticoagulants
may lead to a pulmonary embolism

17

disorders of the blood

anemia
sickle cell anemia
sickle cell trait

18

anemia

defines as a decreased # of RBC's or a decreased hemoglobin concentration in the blood
3 general categories
-microcytic: iron deficiency
-normocytic: normal sized RBC (blood loss)
-macrocytic: enlarged; don't function properly

19

hematocrit

measure of RBC volume
95% or higher

20

S/S and hx of anemia

vague symptoms
-weakness, fatigue, dizziness and headache
-decreased performance
-craving ice or crunchy raw veggies
signs
-tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, dyspnea, tachypnea and pallor
-bruises easily
hx
-dietary habits
-menstrual cycle and amount of flow
-NSAID use and antibiotic use

21

treatment for anemia

refer to doctor for CBC to determine type of anemia first
identify and correct any sources of blood loss
look at diet and ensure athlete is getting good sources of iron
take 325mg 3x per day of ferrous sulfate
-2 week response is good
-after 3-6 weeks hemoglobin is back to normal

22

sickle cell anemia

occurs as a recessive genetic trait, producing abnormally shaped RBC's that inhibit binding of O2
creates a decreased O2 carrying capacity of the blood

23

sickle cell trait

20-40% of the hemoglobin is HbS; the rest of the hemoglobin is normal
1 in every 400-600 African Americans have anemia
1 in every 10 AA have the trait
the risk of SD is 27x higher in AA that have the SCT
SCT is a risk factor for
-exertional rhabdomyolysis
-splenic infarction
-cardiac arrhythmias
-kidney failure

24

SCT S/S

tachycardia
hypotension
hyperventilation
LOC

25

athletes with SCT are advised to...

avoid dehydration and acclimatize gradually to heat and humidity
condition gradually for several weeks before engaging in exhaustive exercise regimens
acclimate to altitude over an appropriate amount of time
refrain from extreme exercise during acute illness, especially if fever is involved