Vocab #7 Flashcards Preview

Medical Issues in Athletic Training > Vocab #7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocab #7 Deck (49):
1

AV node

specialized cardiocytes that relay the contractile stimulus from the SA node to the bundle of His, the bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers, and the ventricular myocardium
located at the boundary between the atria and ventricles

2

cardiac output

the rate of blood ejected by the left ventricle
usually about 5 liters/min.

3

coronary arteries

two arteries that branch from the aorta that supply the heart with blood

4

depolarization

a change in the transmembrane potential from a negative value toward 0 mV

5

diastle

relaxation of the left ventricle
used to measure the diastolic pressure when taking a BP

6

endocardium

innermost layer of the heart
comprised mostly of epithelial cells to create a smooth lining inside the chambers of the heart and created an ionic barrier between blood and cardiac tissue

7

erythropoietin

a hormone released by most tissues - especially the kidneys - when exposed to low oxygen concentrations
stimulates red blood cell formation in red bone marrow

8

mitral valve

the left atrioventricular (AV) valve
regulates blood flow between the left atrium and left ventricle

9

myocaridum

the cardiac muscle layer of the heart
contains short, branched, single-nucleated cells
between the endocaridum and epicaridum

10

myocardium

the cardiac muscle layer of the heart
contains short, branched, single-nucleated cells
between the endocardium and epicardium

11

palpitations

heart rhythm irregularities
most often they are not serious but they can be due to an abnormal heart rhythm

12

pericardium

the fibrous sac that surround the heart
surround, lubricates, and protects the heart and root of the great blood vessels
composed of the parietal pericaridum and visceral pericaridum

13

pulmonary circuit

blood vessels between the pulmonary semilumar valve of the right ventricle and the entrance to the left atrium
the blood flow through the lungs

14

pulmonary valve

allows blood to flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery (then to the lungs for reoxygenation)
a SL valve

15

prukinje fibers

specialized conducting cardiocytes in the ventricles of the heart
receive signal to depolarize and stimulate both ventricles to contract

16

repolarization

the movement of the transmembrane potential away from a positive value and toward the resting potential

17

S1

first heart sound
results from the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves
lower frequency sound than S2
occurs at the beginning of ventricular systole

18

S2

results from the closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves
sharper, sounder sound than S1
occurs at end of ventricular systole

19

S3

results from the impact of inflowing blood against a distended or incompliant ventricle in mid diastole
low-frequency sound occurring about 1/10 of a second after S2

20

S4

sound of the vibration of a non-compliant ventricle that is forced to accept blood during atrial systole
very closely approximated to the first heart sound
often producing, in tandem with the first heart sound, a stuttering quality

21

stroke volume

volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat

22

systemic circuit

the vessels between the aortic valve and the entrance to the right atrium
the system other than the vessels of the pulmonary circuit
carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart

23

tricuspid valve

the right atrioventricular valve
prevents the backflow of blood into the right atrium diring ventricular systole
allows blood to enter the right ventricle from the right atrium

24

ventricle

a fluid-filled chamber
in the heart, one of the large chambers discharging blood into the pulmonary or systemic circuits

25

SA node

sinoatrial node
the natural pacemaker of the heart
situated in the wall of the right atrium

26

systole

a period of contraction in a chamber of the heart as part of the cardiac cycle
used to measure the systolic pressure when taking blood pressure

27

aberrant

deviating from the usual course, as certain ducts, vessels, or nerves

28

AED

automated external defibrillator
portable device that checks the heart rhythm and can send an electric shock to the heart to try and restore a normal rhythm

29

aueurysm

a sac filled with fluid or clotted blood that results from dilation of the wall and that can cause stenosis of the coronary artery

30

angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure
causes dilation of blood vessels, resulting in lower blood pressure

31

arrhythmia

an irregularity in the force or rhythm of the heratbeat

32

athlete's heart

physiological and morphological adaptations, including decreased blood pressure and resting heart rate, that occur to an athlete as a result of ongoing exercise training

33

benign arrhythmias

common arrhythmias that aren't associated with health problems
usually due to increased vagal tone and disappear with exercise in athletes

34

bruits

the sound of a murmur
caused by turbulent blood flow or valvular vibration
can transmit into the carotid vasculature

35

cardioangiography

an examination fo the heart and associated blood vessels using x-rays following the injection of a radiopaque substance
a diagnostic test used for a conclusive diagnosis of coronary artery abnormalities

36

claudication

a limp

37

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation
an emergency procedure in which the heart and lungs are made to work by manually compressing the chest overlying the heart and forcing air into the lungs
used if someone loses circulation

38

electrocardiogram

a graphic recording of the electrical activity of the heart
used to evaluate cardiac function and to diagnose arrhythmias and other disorders
records the electrical impulse that stimulates the heart as two phenomena
-depolarization: the spread of electricity through the cardiac muscle)
-repolarization: the return of the stimulated heart to rest

39

electrophoresis

used to confirm the presence of the sickle cell trait
movement of charged suspended particles through a liquid medium as a result of a change in the surrounding electrical field

40

embolism

a mass that travels in the bloodstream, lodges in a blood vessel, and obstructs it
interrupts gas exchange between blood vessels and can lead to death if not dissolved

41

hyperlipidemia

presence of excess lipids in the plasma
can lead to peripheral arterial disease

42

hypertrophy

an enlargement of an organ or tissue as a result of an increase in the size of the cells
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an abnormally hypertrophied by nondilated left ventricle in the absence of physiological conditions such as physical training and is the leading cause of cardiac sudden death in athletes in the US

43

murmur

a sound heard through a stethoscope that is caused by turbulent blood flow or valvular vibration

44

myocardial bridging

a coronary artery that is surrounded by myocardium for a portion of its course
seen in up to 25% of heart at the time of autopsy after sudden death and usually involves the left anterior descending artery

45

myocardial ischemia

insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle via the coronary arteries

46

orthostatic syncope

fainting that occurs after lying sitting and then moving to a standing position
occurs as the BP is slow to respond to the stress of upright posture

47

polycythemia

a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood
results in thickened blood, reduced blood flow, and an increased danged of clot formation with the circulatory system
may accompany congenital heart disease

48

tachycardia

a rapid heart rate, especially one above 100 beats per minute in an adult
can be a precursor to hypertension

49

venography

radiography of veins after injection of a radiopaque substance
gold standard for judging diagnostic imaging methods for deep venous thrombosis