Medical Issues Ch. 11 Flashcards Preview

Medical Issues in Athletic Training > Medical Issues Ch. 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Issues Ch. 11 Deck (23):
1

S/S of neurological pathology

syncope
coma
paresthesia
abnormal motor control, coordination, or tone
headache
changes in senses
changes in mental status

2

types of paresthesia

numbness
-anesthesia
burning and tingling
hyperesthesia
hypoesthesia

3

abnormal motor control, coordination, or tone types

diminished deep tendon reflexes
muscle weakness
tremors
atrophy

4

ALS
-cause
-S/S
Tx

fatal, progressive neurological disease that slowly attacks neurons responsible for voluntary muscle actions
S/S
-tired or clumsy, often begin in one limb, difficulty with swallowing and speech
-may be spasticity or hyperflexia
-weight loss
Tx
-can be treated with drugs but is not curable

5

Bell's Palsy

disease typically affects CN 7
S/S
-bilateral or unilateral facial weakness
Tx
-corticoseroids

6

epilepsy

>2 seizures in lifetime
caused by abnormal activity in brain
Tx
-combo of medicine or surgery

7

multiple sclerosis

neurodegerative lifelong chronic disease
-can lead to permanent disability in affected nerves
S/S
-problems w/ balance and coordination
-spasticity and fatigue, visual problems, dizziness, pain, numbness, bladder + bowel dysfunction
-cognitive and emotional changes
Tx
-relapsing + progressing symptom management w/ medication

8

vascular headache

caused by spasms of the vellels surrounding the brain
include migraines
S/S: rapid onset, unilateral throbbing pain in frontal or temporal area
-start in morning and peak 2 hrs later (migraine)
-begins with aura and accompanied w/ increased sensitivity to light/sound (migraine)

9

migraine

type of vascular headache that may present w/ or w/o neurological symptoms

10

stroke (CVA)

lack of oxygen to the brain - may lead to reversible or irreversible paralysis and other damage
S/S
-numbness or weakness on one side of the body
-confusion, trouble speaking or understanding
-headache, dizziness
Tx
-acute: designed to reverse or lessened the amount of tissue death
-rehab to improve function so that the stroke survivor can continue an independent lifestyle

11

GBS (Guillain-Barre)

acute demyelinating disorder of the spinal roots and peripheral nerves
S/S
-progressive weakness distal to proximal pain in movement of the affected area and nocturnal muscle cramps
Tx
-no cure
-rehab to make things better and lessen severity of symptoms

12

bacterial and viral miningitis

inflammation of the meninges by bacteria or viruses

13

medical history of a neurological exam

family and personal history
-neurological diseases with genetic factors

14

inspection during a neurological exam

selective atrophy
tremors
gait changes
gross movement changes
posturing

15

posturing type

decorticate rigitidy
decerebrate rigidity

16

docorticate rigidity

indication of cerebral cortex damage
arms in flexion, legs in extension

17

decerebrate rigidity

indication of cerebellum damage
arms and legs in extension

18

sensation

generally unnecessary to test the entire body
focus on symptomatic area
bilateral comparison
dermatomes: an area of skin supplied by a particular spinal nerve
test over skin whenever possible

19

motor function

myotomes
-group of muscles innervated by nerve fibers from a nerve root
compare strength bilaterally

20

meningeal irritation

meninges can become inflames
-meningitis
-vertebral disc pathology
-any pathology causing inflammation in the spinal canal

21

meningeal irritation tests

kernig test
-patient in supine
-passively raising one leg at a time
-keep knee fully extended
-raise leg until symptoms are felt
-flex knee to relieve symptoms
-dorsiflex foot
-if dorsiflexion recreates symptoms, meningeal irritation is present
Brudzinski Test
-perform the above test with neck passively or actively flexed

22

cranial nerves

status of the medulla oblongata
any sign of impairment = urgent referral

23

balance testing

rhomberg test
have patient stand with eyes closed, feet together and arms crossed across chest
look for any swaying or balance correction