Medical Issues Ch. 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Ch. 4 Deck (57)
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1

what is a drug

a chemical that interacts with and affects living organism to produce a biological response

2

who regulates drugs

FDA
DEA

3

drug nomenclature and classifications

identified by
-chemical name
-generic name
-brand name
classifications
-prescription drugs
-over-the-counter drugs
-controlled substances

4

Prescription drug

prescribed by Doctor, NP, or PA

5

OTC products

no prescription necessary
FDA must approve ingredients and label information

6

Controlled Substances
-schedules

high risk for abuse
schedule 1: high potential for abuse
-marijuana, LSD
schedule 2
-cocaine, riddalin
schedule 3
-anabolic steroids, prescription pain killers
schedule 4
-xalium
schedule 5
-codein

7

routes of administration

enteral
-alimentary canal
-digestive system
parenteral
-pathway other than the alimentary canal or digestive system
-usually allows drug to be delivered directly to the tissue sight

8

enteral and parenteral types

enteral
-oral
-rectal
parenteral
-inhalation
-intravenous
-intramuscular
-transdermal
-sublingual

9

oral

most common
slow release preparation
(+)
-easy
-convenienti
-nexpensive
(-)
-variability in absorption
-gastric irritation
-may take longer to produce therapeutic effects

10

rectal

(+)
-quick acting and doesn't interfere with digestive system
-good for those with nausea and vomiting
(-)
-can't control absorption rate

11

inhalation

(+)
-quick delivery of medication for quick relief of symptoms
(-)
-not as convenient

12

injection types
-(+) and (-)

types
-intravenous
-intramuscular
-intraarticular
-subcutaneous tissue
(+)
-no barriers
-rapid onset
(-)
-cost and risk of infection
-discomfort
-inconvenient

13

sublingual
-pros and cons

(+)
-absorbed rapidly
(-)
-uncomfortable
-expensive

14

topical
-types
-pros and cons

types
-creams
-gels
-lotions
-patches
-drops
-sprays
(+)
-effective locally
(-)
-only effective locally

15

primary vs. secondary effect

primary
-desired therapeutic effect of the drug
secondary
-everything else (side effects)

16

pharmacokinetics

how the body acts on and processes a drug

17

4 distinct processes of pharmacokinetics

absorption
distribution
metabolism
elimination

18

absorption

for a drug to produce a therapeutic effect, it must be absorbed into the blood stream and distributed through the circulation

19

2 types of drug solubility

hydrophilic
-water soluble
lypophilic
-fat soluble

20

types of movement across cell membranes

passive diffusion
active transport
facilitated diffusion

21

passive diffusion

most common mechanism of transport across membranes
lypophilic drugs will diffuse more quickly
movement of drug molecules across membranes based on concentration
move to equilibrium

22

active transport

requires a protein to move the drug across a membrane
protein and drug bind
selective diffusion

23

facilitated diffusion

active transport + passive diffusion
selective process
protein involvement
high conc. --> low conc.

24

oral absorption
-pathway
-effect of absorption rate
-take with...

stomach --> small intestine --> circulatory system
the quicker the drug dissolves, the quicker it can be absorbed
take with a full glass of water

25

extended release drugs

enteric coating
-prevents dissolving in the stomach and takes it to the stomach

26

effects of exercise on absorption

decreases effects of oral drugs
blood flow diverted
medication should be taken at least 30 minutes prior to exercise

27

sublingual and buccal (cheek) absorption

dissolve directly in the mouth
rapid absorption --> rapid therapeutic effect
nitroglycerin

28

rectal absorption

drug dissolves in the rectum
absorbed into the hemerrhoidal veins

29

injection (intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous) absorption

very fast

30

topical absorption

slow absorption