Medical Issues Ch. 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Ch. 4 Deck (57):
1

what is a drug

a chemical that interacts with and affects living organism to produce a biological response

2

who regulates drugs

FDA
DEA

3

drug nomenclature and classifications

identified by
-chemical name
-generic name
-brand name
classifications
-prescription drugs
-over-the-counter drugs
-controlled substances

4

Prescription drug

prescribed by Doctor, NP, or PA

5

OTC products

no prescription necessary
FDA must approve ingredients and label information

6

Controlled Substances
-schedules

high risk for abuse
schedule 1: high potential for abuse
-marijuana, LSD
schedule 2
-cocaine, riddalin
schedule 3
-anabolic steroids, prescription pain killers
schedule 4
-xalium
schedule 5
-codein

7

routes of administration

enteral
-alimentary canal
-digestive system
parenteral
-pathway other than the alimentary canal or digestive system
-usually allows drug to be delivered directly to the tissue sight

8

enteral and parenteral types

enteral
-oral
-rectal
parenteral
-inhalation
-intravenous
-intramuscular
-transdermal
-sublingual

9

oral

most common
slow release preparation
(+)
-easy
-convenienti
-nexpensive
(-)
-variability in absorption
-gastric irritation
-may take longer to produce therapeutic effects

10

rectal

(+)
-quick acting and doesn't interfere with digestive system
-good for those with nausea and vomiting
(-)
-can't control absorption rate

11

inhalation

(+)
-quick delivery of medication for quick relief of symptoms
(-)
-not as convenient

12

injection types
-(+) and (-)

types
-intravenous
-intramuscular
-intraarticular
-subcutaneous tissue
(+)
-no barriers
-rapid onset
(-)
-cost and risk of infection
-discomfort
-inconvenient

13

sublingual
-pros and cons

(+)
-absorbed rapidly
(-)
-uncomfortable
-expensive

14

topical
-types
-pros and cons

types
-creams
-gels
-lotions
-patches
-drops
-sprays
(+)
-effective locally
(-)
-only effective locally

15

primary vs. secondary effect

primary
-desired therapeutic effect of the drug
secondary
-everything else (side effects)

16

pharmacokinetics

how the body acts on and processes a drug

17

4 distinct processes of pharmacokinetics

absorption
distribution
metabolism
elimination

18

absorption

for a drug to produce a therapeutic effect, it must be absorbed into the blood stream and distributed through the circulation

19

2 types of drug solubility

hydrophilic
-water soluble
lypophilic
-fat soluble

20

types of movement across cell membranes

passive diffusion
active transport
facilitated diffusion

21

passive diffusion

most common mechanism of transport across membranes
lypophilic drugs will diffuse more quickly
movement of drug molecules across membranes based on concentration
move to equilibrium

22

active transport

requires a protein to move the drug across a membrane
protein and drug bind
selective diffusion

23

facilitated diffusion

active transport + passive diffusion
selective process
protein involvement
high conc. --> low conc.

24

oral absorption
-pathway
-effect of absorption rate
-take with...

stomach --> small intestine --> circulatory system
the quicker the drug dissolves, the quicker it can be absorbed
take with a full glass of water

25

extended release drugs

enteric coating
-prevents dissolving in the stomach and takes it to the stomach

26

effects of exercise on absorption

decreases effects of oral drugs
blood flow diverted
medication should be taken at least 30 minutes prior to exercise

27

sublingual and buccal (cheek) absorption

dissolve directly in the mouth
rapid absorption --> rapid therapeutic effect
nitroglycerin

28

rectal absorption

drug dissolves in the rectum
absorbed into the hemerrhoidal veins

29

injection (intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous) absorption

very fast

30

topical absorption

slow absorption

31

inhalation absorption

rapid absorption (<5 minutes)

32

distribution factors

solubility
target tissue and blood-flow

33

distribution onset of action

the time it takes for drug molecules to reach their site of action in sufficient quantities to produce a therapeutic effect

34

duration of action

the period of time when concentration levels are sufficient enough to produce a therapeutic effect

35

effects of exercise on distribution

increase in blood flow
may increase distribution rate
dependent on site of action

36

metabolism

drugs inactivated
droken down into water-soluble metabolites for excretion

37

metabolism
-primary site
-secondary

primary
-liver
secondary
-kidneys
-GI tract

38

metabolism and exercise

exercise can decrease the clearance of some drugs due to blood being diverted away from the GI, kidneys, and liver to the skeletal muscles
however
-drug's effects are usually longer than exercise session
therefore effect on metabolism is negligible

39

elimination

the process by which a drug leaves the body

40

elimination
-primary site
-secondary

primary
-kidneys
secondary
-intestines
-sweat
-lugns

41

elimination and exercise

can decrease the rate of renal excretion

42

elimination can also be influenced by...

the drug's half-life

43

bioavailability
-factors

amount of the drug actually available to target tissue
factors
-rate at which a drug dissolves in the GI tract
-amount and rate of drug absorbed
-formulation (capsule, tablet, injection)

44

half-life

the time required for the body to eliminate 1/2 of a dosage of a drug by the regular physical processes

45

half-life and water- and fat-soluble drugs

water
-move through faster
fat
-stay in system longer

46

half-life steady state

some drugs will be taken on a consistent basis
ongoing process of drug absorption and removal
amount going in = amount going out
5-6 half-lives of a medication to reach steady state

47

pharmacodynamics

how a drug acts on the body

48

receptor theory

for a drug to work, it must bind to a receptor
receptor may be within a cell or on a cell membrane
lock and key

49

agonist drug

a drug that interacts with a receptor to produce a pharmacological response

50

antagonist drug

a drug that binds with a receptor but does not produce a pharmacological response or prevents a response
-may be blocking other chemicals from attaching to receptors

51

drug dosing
-based on
-increased dose =

based on
-potency of the drug
-patient's age
-patient's condition
increased dose = increased receptors
-until steady state is reached

52

drug interactions

occur when one drug alters the effect of another drug
may change how the body handles one or both drugs
may change the way the drug acts on the body

53

additive interactions

agonistic
two of the same type of drug taken together
effects of the drug "add together"

54

inhibitory effects

antagonistic
can occur between two unrelated drugs

55

adverse drug reactions

range from side effects to hypersensitivity

56

side effects

common effects with use of certain medications

57

hypersensitivity

allergic reactions
may be local or anaphylactic shock