Medical Issues Vocab #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Vocab #3 Deck (60):
1

integument

the skin
the largest organ of the body

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epidermis

outermost layer of skin
five layers

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layers of epidermis

stratum basale
stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum
stratum corneum

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dermis

middle layer of skin
composed of a papillary layer and a reticular layer

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hypodermis

deepest layer of skin (subcutaneous layer)
made of connective tissue (binds the dermis to the deeper structures) and adipose (insulation and cushioning)

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stratum basale

consists of a single layer of cuboidal cells that undergo mitosis
contains pigment-producing melanocytes
form the new cells for the skin

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stratum spinosum

composed of several layers of cells with centrally located, large, oval nuclei and spinelike processes
limited mitosis
provides strength and flexibility to the skin

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stratum granulosum

composed of one or more layers of granular cells that contain fibers of keratin and shriveled nuclei

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stratum lucidum

a thin, clear layer found only in the epidermis of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
adds a layer of protection to the skin

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stratum corneum

consists of may layers of keratinized, dead cells that are flattened and nonnucleated; cornified

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primary lesion

physical changes in the skin considered to be caused directly by the disease process

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secondary lesion

lesions that may evolve from primary lesions, or may be caused by external forces such as scratching, trauma, infection, or the healing process

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macule

a circumscribed spot up to 1 cm
not palpable
not elevated above or depressed below surrounding skin
hypopigmented, hyerpigmented, or erythematous

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macule examples

freckles
cafe au lain spots
Mongolian spots

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papule

bump
palpable and circumscribed
elevated and less than 5 mm in diameter
may be pigmented, erythematous, or flesh-tones

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papule example

mole (elevated nevus)

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nodule

lesion similar to a papule
diameter of 5mm to 2 cm
may have a significant palpable dermal component

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nodule examples

fibroma
xanthoma
intradermal nevi

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tumor

any mass lesion
generally larger than a nodule
may be either malignant or benign

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tumor example

lipoma

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plaque

usually well-circumscribed lesion with large surface area and slight elevation

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plaque examples

psoriasis
lichen planus

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wheal

elevation of the skin
smooth surface and sloping borders
usually light pink color
caused by acute areas of edema in the skin
may appear, disappear, or change form abruptly within minutes or hours
size ranges from 3 mm to 20 mm

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wheal example

mosquito bite

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vesicle

small blister
up to 5 mm in diameter
fluid collection may be subcorneal
intraepidermal
subepidermal

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vesicle example

herpes simplex (early stages)

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bulla

blister larger than 5 mm
fluid may be located at various levels

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bulla examples

pemphigus
pemphigoid

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pustule

an elevated, well-circumscribed lesion containing purulent exudates

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pustule example

acne vulgaris

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erosion

loss of epidermis that does not extend into dermis

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erosion example

ruptured chickenpox vesicle

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ulcer

loss of skin through the epidermis
healing results in scar formation

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ulcer example

stasis ulcer

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fissure

a split in all epidermal layers of skin

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fissure example

athlete's foot

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atrophy

diminution of epidermal surface
skin looks thinner and more translucent than normal
atrophy of the dermal layers may result in wasting or depression of the skin surface

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atrophy example

arterial insufficiency

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excoriation

loss of outer skin layers from scratching or rubbing

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excoriation example

scratched insect bite

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crust

collection of serous exudates and debris on the surface of damages or absent outer skin layers

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crust examples

impetigo

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scale

a compact portion of desquamation stratum corneum
may vary in size, thickness, and consistency

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scale examples

psoriasis scale (compact and thick)
pityriasis rosea scale (thin and small)

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lichenification

epidermal thickening and roughening of the skin with increased visibility of skin surface furrows

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lichenification examples

chronic atopic dermatitis

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scar

a collection of fibrous tissue that forms to replace lost epidermal and dermal tissue

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scar examples

surgical scar
acne scar

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keloid

augmentation of scar tissue, creating a significant elevation on the skin surface after healing

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keloid example

postsurgical scar
postacne scar

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ultraviolet radiation

invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun
may burn the skin and cause skin cancer

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solar

of or pertaining to the sun

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sebaceous

an object that secretes a fatty substance

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mole

a small spot or blemish on the skin
usually dark, slightly elevated, and sometimes hairy
-papule

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xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)

a genetic disease characterized by such extraordinary sensitivity to sunlight that it results in the development of skin cancer at an early age

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abscess

a local accumulation of pus anywhere in the body

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furuncle

also knows as a boil
tender, dome-shaped skin lesion caused by an infection around a hair follicle with Staphlococcus aureus

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carbuncle

collection of pus that forms in the skin
-skin abscess

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functions of the integumentary system

blood reservoir
protects the body's internal living tissues and organs
helps with vitamin D synthesis
storage of nutrients
excretion (some absorption)
transdermal drug administration
body temp. regulation
cutaneous sensations

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three prevention strategies for skin conditions and infections

-clean environment
-hand hygiene
-overall hygiene
-no sharing
-no open cuts in whirlpools
-report all open wounds and lesions to an ATC