Medical Issues Vocab #4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Vocab #4 Deck (92)
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1

CNS
-composition
-functions

consists of the brain and spinal cord
integrates, processes, and coordinates sensory data and motor commands

2

PNS
-composition
-functions

composed of the cranial and spinal nerves
functions
-delivers sensory info to the CNS
-carries motor commands to the peripheral tissues and systems

3

neurons

functional unit of the nervous system that sends and receives signals

4

skull

bony framework of the head that encloses the brain and supports the face
composition
-cerebral cranium (protects brain and brainstem)
-anterior facial body structure

5

cerebral cranium
-function
-bones

function
-protects the brain and brainstem
bones
-frontal
-two temporal
-two parietal
-occipital
-sphenoid
-ethmoid

6

facial skeleton bones

mandible
two zygomatic
two maxillary
two nasal
anterior bones of the head

7

meninges
-function

three layers surrounding the spinal cord and brain
act as a protective covering
act as a support structure for the brain
pathway for blood flow

8

dura mater
-functions

outermost layer of the meninges
thick, tough, fibrous layer
forms structures that separate the cranial cavity into compartments
protects the brain from displacement

9

arachnoid membrane
-separated from dura by...
-contains
-function

middle layers of the meninges
separated from dura mater by subdural space
contains lymphatic fluid
acts to reduce friction between the dura and pia mater

10

pia mater

innermost layer of the meninges
very thin
adheres directly to the surface of the brain and spinal cord

11

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
-function
-generated in...

protets the four ventricles of the brain, the subarachnoid space, and the spinal canal
generated in the choroid plexus

12

cerebrum
-divisions
-composition
-contains...

largest major region of the brain
divided into two cerebral hemispheres and further into four lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital
composed of neural tissue
contains the cerebral cortex, limbic system, and basal ganglia

13

aphasia

neurological condition resulting in impaired speech

14

brainstem
-functions

portion of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and comprises the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts of the hypothalamus
function
-controls reflexes and essential internal mechanisms such as respiration and heartbeat

15

cerebellar peduncles

three large bundles of nerve fibers conducting information between the brain and spinal cord

16

medulla oblongata
-functions

relay point between the diencephalon, cerebrum, and spinal cord
contains major control centers for regulation of cardiovascular activity, respiration, and digestion

17

pons
-functions

connects the cerebellum with the midbrain
serves as a relay point between the diencephalon, cerebrum, and spinal cord
helps with involuntary control of respiration

18

midbrain
-functions

processes visual and auditory responses
generates involuntary motor responses such as reflexes to sudden visual and auditory stimuli
produces dopamine
-affects consciousness, motivation, and alertness

19

somatic nervous system

controls voluntary and involuntary skeletal muscle contraction

20

autonomic nervous system
-functions
-divisions

provides involuntary automatic regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular secretions
divisions
-sympathetic division
-parasympathetic division

21

somatic nervous system functions

provides a stimulating effect
-increases HR and breathing
-dilated blood vessels in skeletal and cardiac muscles and constricts them in the gastrointestinal tract
-dilated the bronchial passages
-dilates the pupils
-erects the hair for protection and display
-increases sweat secretion
-mobilizes glucose

22

parasymphathetic nervous system functions

provides a relaxing effect
-constricts the pupils
-decreases HR
-increases gastrointestinal peristalsis and secretion
-expels wastes

23

cerebellum
-location
-composition
-functions

location
-dorsal to the pons and medulla oblongata
composition
-two hemispheres connected by the vermis
functions
-controls function in the higher level coordination of voluntary movements and in the maintenance of balance, equilibrium, and muscle tone

24

spinal cord
-functions
-divided into...

body's communication system
-transmits nerve impulses to the brain from the spinal nerves that innervate sensory organs and muscles
divided into white and gray matter

25

gray matter
-composition
-organized

consists of unmyelinated neurons or nerve cells
organized in functional groups known as somatic or visceral nuclei

26

white matter

contain myelinated axons of neurons
surrounds the gray matter and consists of the ventral, later, and dorsal columns

27

upper motor neuron
-S/S of damage

a motor neuron whose cell body is located in the motor area of the cerebral cortex and whose processes connect with motor nuclei in the brainstem or the anterior horn of the spinal cord
pertain to the brain or spinal cord
damage to these structures presents as weakness, paralysis, increased muscle tone, spasticity, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, and the presence of Babinski's reflex
do not typically regenerate

28

lower motor neuron (final motor neuron)

motor neuron whose cell body is located in the brainstem or the spinal cord and whose axon innervates skeletal muscle fibers
relate to nerve cell bodies or axons or both
located in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves
damage to these nerves causes decreased muscle tone, flaccidity, diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes, muscular twitching, and progressive atrophy of the affected muscles

29

dorsal root

contain sensory fibers carrying pain and temperature information from the muscles
contain axons from muscle spindles and skin and joint mechanorecpetors

30

ventral root

composed primarily of motor neuron fibers from skeletal muscle, as well as muscle spindle fibers, autonomic axons, and axons carrying thoracic and abdominal visceral sensory information