Medical Issues Vocab #4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Vocab #4 Deck (92):
1

CNS
-composition
-functions

consists of the brain and spinal cord
integrates, processes, and coordinates sensory data and motor commands

2

PNS
-composition
-functions

composed of the cranial and spinal nerves
functions
-delivers sensory info to the CNS
-carries motor commands to the peripheral tissues and systems

3

neurons

functional unit of the nervous system that sends and receives signals

4

skull

bony framework of the head that encloses the brain and supports the face
composition
-cerebral cranium (protects brain and brainstem)
-anterior facial body structure

5

cerebral cranium
-function
-bones

function
-protects the brain and brainstem
bones
-frontal
-two temporal
-two parietal
-occipital
-sphenoid
-ethmoid

6

facial skeleton bones

mandible
two zygomatic
two maxillary
two nasal
anterior bones of the head

7

meninges
-function

three layers surrounding the spinal cord and brain
act as a protective covering
act as a support structure for the brain
pathway for blood flow

8

dura mater
-functions

outermost layer of the meninges
thick, tough, fibrous layer
forms structures that separate the cranial cavity into compartments
protects the brain from displacement

9

arachnoid membrane
-separated from dura by...
-contains
-function

middle layers of the meninges
separated from dura mater by subdural space
contains lymphatic fluid
acts to reduce friction between the dura and pia mater

10

pia mater

innermost layer of the meninges
very thin
adheres directly to the surface of the brain and spinal cord

11

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
-function
-generated in...

protets the four ventricles of the brain, the subarachnoid space, and the spinal canal
generated in the choroid plexus

12

cerebrum
-divisions
-composition
-contains...

largest major region of the brain
divided into two cerebral hemispheres and further into four lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital
composed of neural tissue
contains the cerebral cortex, limbic system, and basal ganglia

13

aphasia

neurological condition resulting in impaired speech

14

brainstem
-functions

portion of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and comprises the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts of the hypothalamus
function
-controls reflexes and essential internal mechanisms such as respiration and heartbeat

15

cerebellar peduncles

three large bundles of nerve fibers conducting information between the brain and spinal cord

16

medulla oblongata
-functions

relay point between the diencephalon, cerebrum, and spinal cord
contains major control centers for regulation of cardiovascular activity, respiration, and digestion

17

pons
-functions

connects the cerebellum with the midbrain
serves as a relay point between the diencephalon, cerebrum, and spinal cord
helps with involuntary control of respiration

18

midbrain
-functions

processes visual and auditory responses
generates involuntary motor responses such as reflexes to sudden visual and auditory stimuli
produces dopamine
-affects consciousness, motivation, and alertness

19

somatic nervous system

controls voluntary and involuntary skeletal muscle contraction

20

autonomic nervous system
-functions
-divisions

provides involuntary automatic regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular secretions
divisions
-sympathetic division
-parasympathetic division

21

somatic nervous system functions

provides a stimulating effect
-increases HR and breathing
-dilated blood vessels in skeletal and cardiac muscles and constricts them in the gastrointestinal tract
-dilated the bronchial passages
-dilates the pupils
-erects the hair for protection and display
-increases sweat secretion
-mobilizes glucose

22

parasymphathetic nervous system functions

provides a relaxing effect
-constricts the pupils
-decreases HR
-increases gastrointestinal peristalsis and secretion
-expels wastes

23

cerebellum
-location
-composition
-functions

location
-dorsal to the pons and medulla oblongata
composition
-two hemispheres connected by the vermis
functions
-controls function in the higher level coordination of voluntary movements and in the maintenance of balance, equilibrium, and muscle tone

24

spinal cord
-functions
-divided into...

body's communication system
-transmits nerve impulses to the brain from the spinal nerves that innervate sensory organs and muscles
divided into white and gray matter

25

gray matter
-composition
-organized

consists of unmyelinated neurons or nerve cells
organized in functional groups known as somatic or visceral nuclei

26

white matter

contain myelinated axons of neurons
surrounds the gray matter and consists of the ventral, later, and dorsal columns

27

upper motor neuron
-S/S of damage

a motor neuron whose cell body is located in the motor area of the cerebral cortex and whose processes connect with motor nuclei in the brainstem or the anterior horn of the spinal cord
pertain to the brain or spinal cord
damage to these structures presents as weakness, paralysis, increased muscle tone, spasticity, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, and the presence of Babinski's reflex
do not typically regenerate

28

lower motor neuron (final motor neuron)

motor neuron whose cell body is located in the brainstem or the spinal cord and whose axon innervates skeletal muscle fibers
relate to nerve cell bodies or axons or both
located in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves
damage to these nerves causes decreased muscle tone, flaccidity, diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes, muscular twitching, and progressive atrophy of the affected muscles

29

dorsal root

contain sensory fibers carrying pain and temperature information from the muscles
contain axons from muscle spindles and skin and joint mechanorecpetors

30

ventral root

composed primarily of motor neuron fibers from skeletal muscle, as well as muscle spindle fibers, autonomic axons, and axons carrying thoracic and abdominal visceral sensory information

31

dermatome

the area of skin supplied by a specific spinal nerve
clinically significant in diagnosing the sensory area of nerve injury

32

myotome

muscle or group of muscles supplied by one ventral nerve

33

hypotonia

loss of muscle tone

34

hypertonia

increase in muscle tone

35

ataxia

incoordination of voluntary movement

36

nystagmus

involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes

37

dysmetria

the inability or impaired ability to accurately control the range of movement in muscular acts

38

dysdiachokinesia

difficulty performing rapidly alternating movements

39

agnosia

inability to recognize and interpret sensory stimuli (CVA)

40

agraphia

inability to express thoughts in writing (CVA)

41

allodynia

sensitivity or pain to non-painful stimuli (CRPS)

42

anisocoria

pupil size inequality of 0.5 to 2.0 mm (neurological disease)

43

aphasia

impaired comprehension or expression of written or spoken language
-CVA
-encephalitis
-dysphasia
-head trauma

44

apraxia

inability to perform purposeful movements in the absence of weakness, sensory loss, coordination, or lack of comprehension
-CVA

45

ataxia

incoordination of voluntary movement
-CVA
-head trauma
-GBS
-MS

46

aura

sensory or motor phenomenon that indicates the start of a seizure or an impending classical migraine
-migraine
-seizure

47

decerebrate rigidity

abnormal extensor responses in the upper and lower limbs
-cerebral cortex trauma

48

decorticate rigidity

abnormal flexor response in the upper extremity and extensor response in the lower extremity
-CVA
-head trauma
-cerebellum trauma

49

deep tendon reflexes

abnormally brisk muscle contraction with tapping
hyperactive on the muscle tendon
-CVA
-trauma
abnormally slow muscle contraction with tapping
hypoactive on the muscle tendon
-GBS

50

diplopia

double vision
-CVA
-encephalitis
-MS
-head trauma
-migraine

51

dysarthria

impaired articulation
-CVA
-MS

52

fasciculations

irregular contraction of groups of muscle fibers
-GBS

53

footdrop

plantar flexion of the foot caused by impaired ability to dorsiflex the foot
-CVA
-MS
-GBS

54

hemianopia

loss of vision in one half of the visual field
-CVA

55

hyperesthesia

increased sensitivity to touch, pain, and temperature
-CVA
-CRPS

56

incontinence

involuntaryloss of urine or feces
-CVA
-MS
-head trauma

57

Kernig's sign

with a patient in the supine position and leg flexion, there is resistance and pain with leg extension
-meningitis
-SAH

58

level of consciousness

reduced alertness ranging from lethargy to stupor
-CVA
-ebcephalitis
-head trauma - bleeds, seizure, meningitis

59

light flashes

bright stars, streaks, or spots in the visual field
-migraine
-head trauma

60

miosis

unilateral constriction of a pupil
-cluster headache

61

muscle atrophy

wasting of muscle size
-CVA
-MS

62

mental flaccidity

profound weakness with lack of active muscle movement and resistance
-CVA
-GBS
-seizures

63

muscle spasticity

increased resistance to movement
-CVA
-MS
-head trauma

64

muscle weakness

reduced muscle strength
-CVA
-MS
-head trauma
-GBS
-seizure

65

myoclonus

spasms of a muscle or group of muscles
-viral encephalitis

66

nuchal rigidity

profound stiffness of the neck with flexion
-meningitis
-encephalitis
-head trauma - bleeds

67

nystagmus

involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes
-CVA
-MS
-encephalitis
-head trauma
-meningitis

68

ocular deviation

abnormal movement of one or both eyes
-CVA
-MS
-encephalitis
-head trauma
-meningitis

69

paralysis

complete loss of voluntary movement
-CVA
-MS
-encephalitis
-head truama
-meningitis

70

paralysis

complete loss of voluntary movement
-CVA
-encephalitis
-MS
-migraine
-seizure
-head trauma - bleeds

71

paresthesia

abnormal sensation in the distribution of peripheral nerves
-CVA
-GBS
-migraine
-MS
-head trauma
-seizure

72

photophobia

increased sensitivity to light
-meningitis
-migraine

73

ptosis

drooping of the upper eyelid
-migraine

74

rhinorrhea

loss of thin mucus from the nasal passages
-cluster headache

75

Romberg's sign

impaired balance with eyes closed and feet together
-MS

76

scotoma

focal area of darkness or blindness in the visual field
-migraine

77

tremors

rhythmical shaking of an extremity from involuntary contraction and relaxation of opposing muscles
-MS

78

look at concussion stuff

management, complications

79

potential complications

subdural hematoma
epidural hematoma
post concussion syndrome

80

epilepsy

chronic condition consisting of unprovoked, randomly recurring seizures

81

epilepsy exercise contraindications

high-risk sports such as gymnastics, high diving, sky diving, rock climbing, and motor sports
water events while alone

82

epilepsy precautions with activity

noncontact sports such as archery, riflery, swimming, weight-lifting events and activities involving height are worrisome
always have another person around while performing water activities

83

benefits of activity for epilepsy

seizure prevalence is reduced during exercise
studies demonstrate that abnormalities on an EEG are reduced during exercise
overall wellness and a sense of well-being reduce seizure frequency

84

multiple sclerosis

neurodegenerative, life-long chronic disease characterized by the gradual accumulation of focal plaques of demyelination in the brain

85

MS causes

autoimmune disease
precise cause remians unknown but MS develops in genetically susceptible individuals who reside in certain permissive environments

86

nervous system parts affected by MS

myelinated cells of the brain are destroyed and replaced by hard sclerotic tissue
PNS not affected

87

MS S/S

no cure
two types of treatment
-modify the course of the disease
-symptom management

88

Guillain-Barre' syndrome

acute, diffuse demyelinating disorder of the spinal roots and peripheral nerves characterized by bilateral muscle weakness or even paralysis initiating in the legs

89

GBS causes

autoimmune syndrome
specific lymphocytes are thought to produce antibodies against components of the myelin sheath and may contribute to destruction of myelin

90

GBS nervous system parts affected

spinal roots and peripheral nerves

91

GBS S/S

distal muscle weakness and loss of deep tendon reflexes that occurs bilaterally
areflexia
afebrile state
pain with slightest movement of affected area
nocturnal muscular cramps

92

GBS treatment

no cure
therapies aim to lessen the severity of the symptoms, accelerate the rate of recovery and manage complication of the symdrome
corticosteroids have been shown to work