Medical Issues Ch. 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Ch. 5 Deck (42):
1

administration vs. dispensing

administration: physically helping the patient take it
dispensing: handing it to the patient

2

what medications can ATs dispense

only OTCs

3

what needs to be recorded when dispensing?

name
date
reason they're taking it
medication name
dosage/quantity
lot number
initials or signature

4

NSAID

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

5

how do NSAIDs work

cyclooygenase (COX) inhibitors
COX enzymes produce prostaglandins
-increase sensitivity to pain
inhibiting COX function leads to inhibiting inflammation

6

two types of COX

COX-1
-regulate bodily functions (platelet production, renal function, etc.)
COX-2
-inflammatory process
-pain
-fever

7

problem with NSAID

inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, which can lead to GI problems

8

NSAID common uses

acuts and chronic inflammatory conditions
also used as an analgesic and antipyretic (reduces fever)

9

common NSAIDs

ibuprofen
-Addaprin, Advil, Motrin
-400 mg every 4-6 hours
naproxen sodium
-Aleve, Anaprox
-250 mg every 6-8 hours
diclofenac
-Voltaren
-50 mg, tid
celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor)
-Celebrex
-100-200 mg, bid

10

NSAID
-side effects
-contraindications
-interactions

side effects
-GI irritation
renal system side effects
contraindications
-caution with individuals with GI issues
interactions
-NSAIDs should not be taken together

11

corticosteroids
-type
-administration route

anti-inflammatory
multiple forms/uses/routes of administration

12

corticosteroid common indications/drugs

hydrocortisone
-indication: dermatological
-administration: topical

13

dexamethasone indications and admin

dexamethasone
-indication: asthma, chronic inflammation
--admin: tablet/capsule
-indication: asthma
--admin: oral inhalation
-indication: rhinitis (inflammation of the mucus membranes)
--admin: nasal inhalation
-indication: chronic inflammatory conditions
--admin: injection

14

corticosteroid side effects

restlessness
dizziness
sleeplessness
changes in skin color
unusual hair growth

15

analgesic
-what is it?

anything that reduces pain

16

most common analgesic + info

acetominophen
-Tylenol
-625-1000 mg every 4-6 hours
-side effects: increased potential for liver problems
-contraindications: should not be taken with blood thinners

17

analgesic - narcotics and opiates

controlled substances
indications: post-op pain, severe musculoskeletal pain, some cancers
side effects: drowsiness and euphoria
narcotics: OxyContin, Demerol
opiates: morphine, codeine

18

antibiotics function

rids the body of bacterial infection

19

antibiotics classification
-what type of classification?
-classes

classified by their mechanism of action
types
-bacterialcidal: kills the bacteria
--Penicillin
-bacteriostatic: inhibits the growth of bacteria
--Cipro

20

antibiotics side effects and interactions

decreased effectiveness of oral contraceptives

21

antihistamines function

used to treat allergies

22

antihistamine physiology

body reacts to an allergen by having the mast cells release histamine
histamine binds to histamine receptors in the nose, eyes, respiratory tract, skin, etc. producing classic allergy signs and symptoms
antihistamines are antagonist drugs

23

H1 antihistamines

first generation: drowsiness is common
-ex.: Benadryl (Diphenhydramine)
-dosage: 25-50 mg every 4-6 hours
second generation: drowsiness is less common
-ex.: Claritin (Loratidine)
-dosage: 10 mg, 1x/day
-example: Allegra
-dosage: 60 mg, bid

24

Bronchodilators
-indication
-how does it work

used for asthma (recommended as first response)
B-adrenergic agonists

25

bronchodilator side effects

tremor
nervousness
dizziness
headache
nausea
tachycardia

26

inhaler use

shake the inhaler
hold inhaler upright
breathe out
place lips around mouthpiece
breathe in and press down on the canister
breathe in as long as you can
hold breath for at least 5-10 seconds
resume breathing normally

27

decongestants
-indications

nasal congestion
-allergic rhinitis
-common cold

28

decongestants how it works

vasoconstriction of blood cells in nasal passages
decreases inflammation of mucous membranes

29

most common decongestant

pseudoephedrine
-Sudafed
-120 mg (1 tablet) every 12 hours
side effects
-nervousness
-headache
-insomnia
-restlessness
contraindications
-hypertension and heart disease

30

Phenylephrine HCl (decongestant)

Sudafed PE
10-15 mg every 4-6 hours
side effects
-nervousness
-headache
-insomnia
-restlessness
contraindications
-use of certain types of anti-depressants
-hypertension and heart disease

31

cough medication types

suppressants
-suppress cough reflex
expectorants
-increases mucous production to expel it

32

uses for each

suppressants
-dry cough
expectorant
-productive cough

33

dextromethorphan (suppressant)

10-30 mg, every 4-8 hours
side effects
-drowsiness or dizziness
precaution
-interacts with numerous anti-depressant medications

34

guaifenesin (expectorant)

Mucinex
200-400 mg, every 4 hours
side effects
-nausea and vomiting

35

GI drug types

antiemetics
-treat nausea and vomining
-bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) and Emetrol
antidiarrheals
-treat the symptom

36

three types of antidiarrheals

opiods
-loperamide
--Immodium, Diamode
--4 mg initially, 2 mg after each subsequent loose stool
absorbents
-kapectolin
-absorbs water to increase thickness
-less common
bismuth subsalicylate
-may also be used to treat diarrhea

37

antacids (GI drug)

neutralize stomach acid and increase gastric pH
contain at least one of the following
-aluminum hydroxide
-MgOH
-CaCO3
-Sodium Bicarbonate

38

antacids info

indications
-peptic ulcers, heartburn, GERD
-Tums, Maalox, Rolaids, Alka-Seltzer
-generally taken after meals or at bedtime
-can provide relief within five minutes
-interactions: may decrease the absorption of other medications

39

antifungals

treat both superficial and systemic fungal infections involving the mucous membranes, nails, hair, or skin

40

types of antifungals

fungicidal
-kill the fungus
fungistatic
-stop fungal cells from reproducing

41

antifungal application and side effects

generally topical
may cause itching, burning, irritation

42

antivirals

used to treat viral infections
most commonly: herpes infections or influenza infections
prescription only