Medical Issues Exam #3 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Exam #3 Study Guide Deck (72)
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1

viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)
-S/S-Tx
-referral

S/S
-diarrhea
-nausea
-vomiting
-abdominal spasms
-fever
-aches and chills
-only lasts up to 48 hours
Tx
-supportive treatment
-attention to hydration
-OTC anti-diarrheals and antiemetics
-BRAT diet
-refer if symptoms persist >48 hours

2

food poisoning
-S/S
-Tx
-referral
-RTP

S/S
-diarrhea
-nausea
-vomiting
-severe abdominal cramping
-high fever
-lasts longer than 48 hours
Tx
-OTC meds.
-supportive treatment
refer if
-blood in stool
-severe symptoms
RTP
-symptoms have completely resolved
-no fever for 24 hours

3

traveler's diarrhea
-S/S
-Tx
-referral
-RTP

S/S
-diarrhea
-abdominal spasm
-fatigue
Tx
-OTC meds
-avoid contamination
-supportive treatment
refer
-blood in stool
-symptoms >3 days
RTP
-symptoms completely resolved

4

parasitic infections
-S/S
-Tx
-referral

S/S
-giardia
--significant gas
--diarrhea
--dull abdominal cramping and bloating
-entamoeba
--chronic intermittent diarrhea
--bloody diarrhea
--abdominal pain
--weight loss
Tx
-prompt diagnosis and referral is paramount
-physician will determine RTP and Tx guidelines

5

dyspepsia
-S/S
-Tx
-referral
-DDx

S/S
-irritation of the mucosum in the upper GI
-common heartburn
-indigestion
-burning under the sternum
Tx
-dietary changes
-OTC antacids (taken after meals and before bedtime)
-separate dosing of antacids with other drugs at least 2 hours
Refer
-stronger meds. for chronic heartburn
-weight loss
-abnormal masses in the abdomen
-hematochezia
-fever
DDx
-gastroesophageal reflux ulcer

6

gastroesophagael reflux (GERD)
-S/S
-Tx
-referral

gastroesophageal sphincter malfunctions
S/S
-more frequent and intense than dyspepsia
-heartburn
-chest pain
-belching
-regurgitation of food and acid
-possible
--asthma-like symptoms
--chronic cough and laryngitis
Tx
-changes in lifestyle behaviors (stress, food, etc.)
-PPI and H2 blockers inhibit acid production (taken before a meal)
Refer
-if Sx persists for several weeks or becomes worse

7

hiatal hernia
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-small HH's = no symptoms
-causes GERD
-worse when lying down
-relieved when sitting up
Tx
-medication and surgery

8

peptic ulcer
-S/S
-Tx

intermittent pain in the upper and middle abdomen
pain can radiate to the thoracic spine, chest and neck
eating may make it better or worse
pain at night is common
recurrent vomiting and loss of appetite may cause weight loss
perforated ulcers can cause bloody vomit (hematemesis) or "coffee ground" vomit
Tx
-treat the cause
-avoid irritants
-antacids and antibiotics for H Phlori
-PPIs and H2 blockers help
-scope to make sure no tumors are present

9

inflammatory bowel diseases
-types
-S/S
-Tx

types
-autoimmune disease
--Crohn's Disease
--Ulcerative Colitis
S/S
-abdominal pain
-chronic diarrhea
-hematochezia
-weight loss
-palpable abdominal mass
-loss of appetite
-skin rash
-intermittent joint pain
Tx
-no cure
-managed
--diet
--lifestyle changes
--medication
--surgery

10

irritable bowel syndrome
-types
-S/S
-Tx

types
-diarrhea
-constipation
-diarrhea alternating with constipation
-bloating and generalized abdominal discomfort
S/S
-complaints of urgency or incomplete evacuation
Tx
-treat cause
--psychosocial events
--poor diet
--reasonable physical activity
-OTC meds
no limitations with IBS

11

appendicitis
-S/S

S/S
-begins as generalized abdominal pain
-pain centralizes to the LRQ in about 12 to 18 hours
-McBurney's Point
-Jar Sign (rebound tenderness)
-nausea and loss of appetite
--not relieved with bowel movement
-low grade fever may be present with infection
-patient has an unwillingness to stand straight up

12

diverticulosis and diverticulitis
-vs.
-S/S
-Tx

diverticulosis
-herniations of the mucosa and submucosa through the muscular layer of the intestinal wall
-10% of Americans have it
diverticulitis
-obstruction of the herniation (feces)
S/S
-diverticulosis is commonly asymptomatic
-diverticulitis
--severe abdominal cramping
--constant pain in LLQ
--radiating pain
--constipation
--diarrhea
--fever
--rectal bleeding
Tx
-high fiber diet
-light exercise
-severe cases
--antibiotics
--emergency surgery

13

hemorrhoids
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-blood with defecation
-pain and itching, especially during sitting
Tx
-changes in diet
-topical medications
-surgery

14

spleen trauma
-S/S

S/S
-shock
-Kerh's sign
--left shoulder
-persistent abdominal pain
-local tenderness in the LUQ
-abdominal rigidity
-nausea and vomiting

15

liver trauma
-S/S

S/S
-persistent abdominal pain
-RUQ tenderness
-upper GI signs (nausea, vomiting)

16

hepatitis
-what is it
-transmission
-stages of infection

what is it
-inflammation of the liver
-viral infection or liver toxicity
transmission
-A: close personal contact
-B-D: body fluids
stages
-initial: asymptomatic, virus highly communicable
-icteric: general S/S
--fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, joint pain
recovery: >4 months
-fatigue is common

17

cirrhosis
-result of
-what is it
-S/S
-Tx

result of
-chronic liver disease and malnutrition produces cellular damage and necrosis
S/S
-ascites
-splenomegaly
-central and peripheral neurological signs
-GI system S/S
Tx
-not curable
-address the underlying cause

18

cholelithiasis

gallstones
account for nearly 20% of all hospital admissions among adults

19

cholecystitis
-S/S of both
-result when
-specific S/S
--suggest what

gallbladder disease
S/S
-intermittent RUQ pain that worsens after meals that include fatty foods
result when
-gallstones block the cystic duct
S/S
-fever
-jaundice
-vomiting
-RUQ tenderness
-referred right shoulder pain
all suggest an acute gallbladder attack

20

pancreatitis
-occurs when
-S/S

occurs when
-pancreatic enzymes become active within the pancreas rather than the duodenum, resulting in self-digestion of pancreatic cells
S/S
-severe peritonitis
-sudden and excruciating epigastric and LUQ pain
-left shoulder pain
-LUQ rigidity
-shock
-medical emergency

21

LUQ structures

left lobe of liver
spleen
stomach
body of pancreas
left adrenal gland
portion of left kidney
portions of ascending and transverse colon

22

RUQ structures

liver
gallbladder
duodenum
head of pancreas
right adrenal gland
portion of right kidney
portions of ascending and transverse colon

23

LLQ structures

lower pole of left kidney
sigmoid colon
portion of descending colon
bladder
ovary
uterus (if enlarged)
left spermatic cord
left ureter

24

LRQ structures

lower pole of right kidney
cecum and appendix
portion of ascending colon
bladder
ovary
uterus (if enlarged)
right spermatic cord
right ureter

25

difference between solid and hollow organs

BOOK

26

which organs are
-hollow
-solid

BOOK

27

ausculation method for bowel sounds
-what are normal findings
-abnormal
-what may abnormal findings indicate

BOOK

28

explain the process of precussing and palpating the abdomen

BOOK

29

common S/S associated with metabolic or endocrine disorders

skin changes
diaphoresis
hyperhydrosis
body or breath odor
polydipsia and polyuria
arthralgia and amalgia
muscle atrophy and weakness
amenorrhea
change in mental status
praesthesia
edema
polyphagia (increased hunger)
postural (orthostatic) hypotension
lethargy and fatigue
no pain

30

hyperthyroidism
-etiology
-S/S
-Tx

etiology
-excess of thyroid hormone
-impairs glucose metabolism
S/S
-core body temperature increases
-heart rate response to exercise
--greater than normal
Tx
-medication
-radiation
-possible removal of gland