Medical Issues Exam #3 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Exam #3 Study Guide Deck (72):
1

viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)
-S/S-Tx
-referral

S/S
-diarrhea
-nausea
-vomiting
-abdominal spasms
-fever
-aches and chills
-only lasts up to 48 hours
Tx
-supportive treatment
-attention to hydration
-OTC anti-diarrheals and antiemetics
-BRAT diet
-refer if symptoms persist >48 hours

2

food poisoning
-S/S
-Tx
-referral
-RTP

S/S
-diarrhea
-nausea
-vomiting
-severe abdominal cramping
-high fever
-lasts longer than 48 hours
Tx
-OTC meds.
-supportive treatment
refer if
-blood in stool
-severe symptoms
RTP
-symptoms have completely resolved
-no fever for 24 hours

3

traveler's diarrhea
-S/S
-Tx
-referral
-RTP

S/S
-diarrhea
-abdominal spasm
-fatigue
Tx
-OTC meds
-avoid contamination
-supportive treatment
refer
-blood in stool
-symptoms >3 days
RTP
-symptoms completely resolved

4

parasitic infections
-S/S
-Tx
-referral

S/S
-giardia
--significant gas
--diarrhea
--dull abdominal cramping and bloating
-entamoeba
--chronic intermittent diarrhea
--bloody diarrhea
--abdominal pain
--weight loss
Tx
-prompt diagnosis and referral is paramount
-physician will determine RTP and Tx guidelines

5

dyspepsia
-S/S
-Tx
-referral
-DDx

S/S
-irritation of the mucosum in the upper GI
-common heartburn
-indigestion
-burning under the sternum
Tx
-dietary changes
-OTC antacids (taken after meals and before bedtime)
-separate dosing of antacids with other drugs at least 2 hours
Refer
-stronger meds. for chronic heartburn
-weight loss
-abnormal masses in the abdomen
-hematochezia
-fever
DDx
-gastroesophageal reflux ulcer

6

gastroesophagael reflux (GERD)
-S/S
-Tx
-referral

gastroesophageal sphincter malfunctions
S/S
-more frequent and intense than dyspepsia
-heartburn
-chest pain
-belching
-regurgitation of food and acid
-possible
--asthma-like symptoms
--chronic cough and laryngitis
Tx
-changes in lifestyle behaviors (stress, food, etc.)
-PPI and H2 blockers inhibit acid production (taken before a meal)
Refer
-if Sx persists for several weeks or becomes worse

7

hiatal hernia
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-small HH's = no symptoms
-causes GERD
-worse when lying down
-relieved when sitting up
Tx
-medication and surgery

8

peptic ulcer
-S/S
-Tx

intermittent pain in the upper and middle abdomen
pain can radiate to the thoracic spine, chest and neck
eating may make it better or worse
pain at night is common
recurrent vomiting and loss of appetite may cause weight loss
perforated ulcers can cause bloody vomit (hematemesis) or "coffee ground" vomit
Tx
-treat the cause
-avoid irritants
-antacids and antibiotics for H Phlori
-PPIs and H2 blockers help
-scope to make sure no tumors are present

9

inflammatory bowel diseases
-types
-S/S
-Tx

types
-autoimmune disease
--Crohn's Disease
--Ulcerative Colitis
S/S
-abdominal pain
-chronic diarrhea
-hematochezia
-weight loss
-palpable abdominal mass
-loss of appetite
-skin rash
-intermittent joint pain
Tx
-no cure
-managed
--diet
--lifestyle changes
--medication
--surgery

10

irritable bowel syndrome
-types
-S/S
-Tx

types
-diarrhea
-constipation
-diarrhea alternating with constipation
-bloating and generalized abdominal discomfort
S/S
-complaints of urgency or incomplete evacuation
Tx
-treat cause
--psychosocial events
--poor diet
--reasonable physical activity
-OTC meds
no limitations with IBS

11

appendicitis
-S/S

S/S
-begins as generalized abdominal pain
-pain centralizes to the LRQ in about 12 to 18 hours
-McBurney's Point
-Jar Sign (rebound tenderness)
-nausea and loss of appetite
--not relieved with bowel movement
-low grade fever may be present with infection
-patient has an unwillingness to stand straight up

12

diverticulosis and diverticulitis
-vs.
-S/S
-Tx

diverticulosis
-herniations of the mucosa and submucosa through the muscular layer of the intestinal wall
-10% of Americans have it
diverticulitis
-obstruction of the herniation (feces)
S/S
-diverticulosis is commonly asymptomatic
-diverticulitis
--severe abdominal cramping
--constant pain in LLQ
--radiating pain
--constipation
--diarrhea
--fever
--rectal bleeding
Tx
-high fiber diet
-light exercise
-severe cases
--antibiotics
--emergency surgery

13

hemorrhoids
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-blood with defecation
-pain and itching, especially during sitting
Tx
-changes in diet
-topical medications
-surgery

14

spleen trauma
-S/S

S/S
-shock
-Kerh's sign
--left shoulder
-persistent abdominal pain
-local tenderness in the LUQ
-abdominal rigidity
-nausea and vomiting

15

liver trauma
-S/S

S/S
-persistent abdominal pain
-RUQ tenderness
-upper GI signs (nausea, vomiting)

16

hepatitis
-what is it
-transmission
-stages of infection

what is it
-inflammation of the liver
-viral infection or liver toxicity
transmission
-A: close personal contact
-B-D: body fluids
stages
-initial: asymptomatic, virus highly communicable
-icteric: general S/S
--fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, joint pain
recovery: >4 months
-fatigue is common

17

cirrhosis
-result of
-what is it
-S/S
-Tx

result of
-chronic liver disease and malnutrition produces cellular damage and necrosis
S/S
-ascites
-splenomegaly
-central and peripheral neurological signs
-GI system S/S
Tx
-not curable
-address the underlying cause

18

cholelithiasis

gallstones
account for nearly 20% of all hospital admissions among adults

19

cholecystitis
-S/S of both
-result when
-specific S/S
--suggest what

gallbladder disease
S/S
-intermittent RUQ pain that worsens after meals that include fatty foods
result when
-gallstones block the cystic duct
S/S
-fever
-jaundice
-vomiting
-RUQ tenderness
-referred right shoulder pain
all suggest an acute gallbladder attack

20

pancreatitis
-occurs when
-S/S

occurs when
-pancreatic enzymes become active within the pancreas rather than the duodenum, resulting in self-digestion of pancreatic cells
S/S
-severe peritonitis
-sudden and excruciating epigastric and LUQ pain
-left shoulder pain
-LUQ rigidity
-shock
-medical emergency

21

LUQ structures

left lobe of liver
spleen
stomach
body of pancreas
left adrenal gland
portion of left kidney
portions of ascending and transverse colon

22

RUQ structures

liver
gallbladder
duodenum
head of pancreas
right adrenal gland
portion of right kidney
portions of ascending and transverse colon

23

LLQ structures

lower pole of left kidney
sigmoid colon
portion of descending colon
bladder
ovary
uterus (if enlarged)
left spermatic cord
left ureter

24

LRQ structures

lower pole of right kidney
cecum and appendix
portion of ascending colon
bladder
ovary
uterus (if enlarged)
right spermatic cord
right ureter

25

difference between solid and hollow organs

BOOK

26

which organs are
-hollow
-solid

BOOK

27

ausculation method for bowel sounds
-what are normal findings
-abnormal
-what may abnormal findings indicate

BOOK

28

explain the process of precussing and palpating the abdomen

BOOK

29

common S/S associated with metabolic or endocrine disorders

skin changes
diaphoresis
hyperhydrosis
body or breath odor
polydipsia and polyuria
arthralgia and amalgia
muscle atrophy and weakness
amenorrhea
change in mental status
praesthesia
edema
polyphagia (increased hunger)
postural (orthostatic) hypotension
lethargy and fatigue
no pain

30

hyperthyroidism
-etiology
-S/S
-Tx

etiology
-excess of thyroid hormone
-impairs glucose metabolism
S/S
-core body temperature increases
-heart rate response to exercise
--greater than normal
Tx
-medication
-radiation
-possible removal of gland

31

hypothyroidism
-etiology
-S/S
-Tx

second most common endocrine disorder
etiology
-dificiency of T3 an dT4
-decreased cardiac output
-decreased O2 and glucose available during exercise
S/S
-dry skin
-myalgia
-edema
-constipation
-slowed cognition
-weakness
-bilateral paresthesia
-bradycardia
-poor circulation
Tx
-thyroid replacement therapy

32

Graves' disease
-what is it
-S/S

most common form of hyperthyroidism
S/S
-tremors
-weakness
-difficulty swallowing or speaking
-fatigue
-tics
-enlarged thyroid gland (goiter)
-heat intolerance
-nervousness
-sweating
-weight loss

33

heat cramps
-severity
-S/S
-Tx

severity
-earliest, least severe heat illness
S/S
-cramps
-particularly in large muscles in the legs and trunk
-fatigue
-thirst
-sweating
Tx
-removal from heat

34

heat syncope
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-fainting due to heat
-pale skin
-decreased HR
-elevated body temp
Tx
-cool person down
-remove from heat
-elevate legs
-check vitals often

35

heat exhaustion
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-<103 F
-profuse sweating
-increased HR
-increased respiration rate
-decreased blood pressure
-headache
-nausea
-fatigue
-weakness/dizziness
Tx
-rapid cooling
-dehydration

36

exertional heat stroke
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-clammy skin
-BOOK
Tx

37

exertional hyponatremia
-etiology
-S/S
-Tx

Na levels drop - excessive hydration
S/S
-similar to heat stroke
-nausea
-impaired cognition
-loss of consciousness
-seizures
Tx
-refer
-administer Na

38

type 1 diabetes
-another name
-disease type
-etiology
-S/S
-Dx
management
-long-term health concerns

"juvenile diabetes"
autoimmune disease
inability to regulate blood glucose
S/S
-polydipsia
-polyuria
-polyphagia
-weight loss
Dx
-lab results must be positive on multiple days for a diagnosis
commonly diagnosed before 25
management
-insulin
long-term health concerns
-CVD
-delayed wound healing
-peripheral neuropathy

39

type 2 diabetes
-etiology
-predictors
-S/S
-complications

etiology
-decreased insulin receptor sensitivity
-blood glucose remains elevated
predictors
obesity
-family history
S/S
-polydipsia
-polyuria
-complications
-hyperlipidemia
-arteriosclerosis
-chronic infection
-bone changes

40

hypoglycemia
-etiology
-level
-S/S
-Tx

low blood glucose levels common with type I diabetes
<70 mg/dL
S/S
sudden onset
-hunger
-decreased performance
-slurred speech
-autonomic signs (pallor, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tremors)
-confusion
-headache
-blurred vision
-dizziness
-fatigue
Tx
-give them sugar

41

hyperglycemia
-alternate names
-levels
-S/S
-Tx

names
-diabetic coma
-ketoacidosis
level
->200 mg/dL
S/S
-gradual onset
-thirst
-dehydration
-loss of consciousness
-abdominal pain
-fruity odor on breath
-lethargy
-confusion
Tx
-remove from activity
-insulin

42

explain steps for using a glucometer

BOOK

43

explain components of a care plan for a diabetic athlete

blood glucose monitoring guidelines
-frequency of monitoring and pre-exercise exclusion values
insulin therapy guidelines
-type of insulin, dosages and adjustment strategies
list of other medications for glycemic control
guidelines for hypoglycemia recognition and treatment
-prevention, S/S, Tx
-how to use glucagon
guidelines for hyperglycemia recognition and treatment
-prevention, S/S, Tx of hyperglycemia and ketosis
emergency contact info
athletes with diabetes should have a medic alert tag with them at all times

44

who is part of the diabetic care team

coach
health professionals
-school nurse and administrators (child)

45

how do diabetic patients respond differently to injury

exaggerated hyperglycemic response to injury
-can lead to infection, poor wound and fracture healing

46

what other special considerations need to be made when treating a diabetic athlete/patient

BOOK

47

what are complications of diabetes

cardiovascular
-myocardial infarction
-stroke
-peripheral arterial disease
retinopathy
nephropathy
neuropathy

48

common S/S associated with renal, genitourinary and gynecological disorders
-what does each S/S potentially indicate

hematuria
changes in urinary habits
nipple discharge
hypertension
anemia
sexual dysfunction
menstrual irregularities
pain

49

what relevant family and personal history questions should be asked
-how do these differ between males and females

BOOK

50

what are the different methods for performing a urinalysis

best method
-clean catch mid stream
needs to be tested within the hour
catheter can be used - comes with risks

51

what are abnormal findings of a urinalysis
-what may these indicate

cloudy
-contains red or white blood cells, bacteria, fat, mucous, digestive fluids or pus from the bladder or kidney infection
odor
-foul smelling - UTI
-fruity - diabetes, starvation and dehydration
specific gravity
-1.0005 - 1.0035
PH - normal is 4.5 - 8.0

52

kidney trauma
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-direct blow to middle/lower back
-tenderness ribs 10 - 12
-blood in urine (emergency referral)
Tx
-treated with meds not surgery

53

UTIs
-etiology
-S/S
-red flags
-Tx
-need to determine

etiology
-bacterial infection
-more common in sexually active females
S/S
-dysuria
-increased frequency
-scanty flow
-back pain
red flags
-gross hematuria
-abnormal vaginal bleeding
-fever
Tx
-urinalysis and referral is often needed
-analgesics and antipruretics
need to determine cause before treatment (bacterial, fungal, parasite, yeast)

54

urolithiasis
-alternate name
-etiology
-S/S
-Tx
-decrease chances

kidney stones
etiology
-forms due to excess salt, calcium or uric acid in the kidney filtrate
-when stones get big enough to block urine flow pain begins
-not usually any trauma
S/S
-pain in abdomen and lower back radiating to anterior thigh
-vomiting
-pallor
-tachycardia and signs of shock
Tx
-small stones treated with medication and good hydration to pass
-large stones
--fragmented with light sound or shock
proper diet/hydration decreases chances

55

prostate disorders, including cancer
-S/S due to
-likelihood
-etiology
-S/S

S/S
-due to chronic or acute inflammation (prostatitis)
likelihood increases with age
etiology
-most commonly due to infection, but cancer and urogenital disease as well
S/S
-dysuria
-increased volume or frequency or urination and nocturia
-dull ache in low back/scrotum

56

testicular torsion
-etiology
-S/S
-Tx

etiology
-spermatic cord twists, compressing veins and arteries to the testicles
S/S
-nausea and vomiting
-abdominal pain
-scrotal swelling
-tender testicle
-elevated bilaterally
Tx
-manual detorsion is successful 30-70% of the time
-6 hours from the onset of pain treatment will result in 80-100% salvage
-12+ hours 0% salvage

57

hydrocele
-etiology
-rate
-S/S
-RTP

etiology
-fluid collection along the scrotal sac or along spermatic cord
rate
-6% of adult men
S/S
-asymptomatic
-possible aching/fullness
RTP
-not limited if asymptomatic

58

varicocele
-etiology
-S/S
-RTP

-valves in the veins fail
-veins stretch, get bigger or become swollen
S/S
-feels like a "bag or worms"
-dull ache and heaviness in scrotum
RTP
-no participation risks

59

cryptochidism

failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum during development

60

testicular cancer
-S/S
-Tx
-RTP

S/S
-nodule in testicle is palpable
-unilateral testicular swelling
-pain in testicle
-rare occasions - breast tenderness and heaviness and aching in the scrotum
Tx
-removal of testicle and spermatic cord (orchiectomy)
-chemo and/or radiation therapy
RTP
-based on symptoms during treatment and physician orders
-wearing a cup[ is mandatory to protect remaining testicle

61

gonorrhea
-cause
-S/S
-Tx
-often occurs with

cause
-bacteria
S/S
-men
--discomfort in the urethra
--moving quickly to dysuria and a purulent, yellow-green urethral discharge
-women
--less severe
--dysuria
--frequency of voiding
--vaginal discharge
Tx
-antibiotics
often occurs with chlamydia

62

chlamydia
-cause
-S/S
-red flags
Tx

cause
-bacteria
S/S
-urethral discharge
-dysuria
-fever
-meatal itching
red flags
-infertility
-ectopic pregnancy
-chronic pelvic pain
-epididymitis
-male urethral infections
Tx
-antibiotics (tetracycline)
-report to health authority

63

syphilis
-cause
-S/S
-Tx

cause
-bacteria
S/S
-4 stages
--primary stage: infectious
---chancre (sore) at point of contact with infected person
---3-8 weeks
--secondary stage
---dermatological presentations, including rash and mucous membrane erosion, CSF abnormalities
--latent stage
---reappearance of infectious lesions
--late, or tertiary, stage
---symptomatic but not contagious, cardiovascular syphilis marked by aortic insufficiency, coronary stenosis, aortic aneurysm
Tx
-primary and secondary
--full sexual history (partners 3 months primary; 12 months secondary)
-antibiotic (penicillin)

64

genital warts
-cause
-S/S
-Tx

cause
-human papillomavirus
S/S
-genital warts look like common warts
-found in warm, moist areas of the body
--women: vulva, vaginal walls, cervix, and perineum
--men: urethra, penile shaft
Tx
-removal by electrocauterization, cryotherapy, laser, or surgical excision

65

herpes
-cause
-S/S
-Tx

cause
-virus
S/S
-mimic the flu
-fever, sore throat
-lymphadenopathy
-malaise
-visicles on an erythematous base
-early stages are often confused with ringworm, impetigo, acne, and eczema
Tx
-oral antiviral medications

66

endometriosis
-etiology
-S/S
-Tx

etiology
-when endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus
-between ages of 30-40
S/S
-dysmenorrhea
-increased discharge volume and menstruation
-dysparenunia
-dysuria
-pain with bowel movements
-back pain
-leading cause of infertility
Tx
-hormone and pain therapy (progesterone)
-occasionally surgical intervention

67

ruptured ectopic pregnancy
-etiology
-S/S
-baby...

etiology
-when ovum attaches outside uterus, usually in fallopian tube
-normal signs of pregnancy
-once large enough, tube ruptures causing severe hemorrhaging
S/S
-low back pain
-low quadrant tenderness
-vaginal bleeding
-syncope
-shock
babywill die no matter what
surgery is to save the mother

68

what considerations should be made for pregnant athletes

avoid supine positions
no heavy weight lifting
discourage valsalva maneuver
no activities that involve risk of falling
avoid contact sports after the 14th week
no hot tubs/whirlpools
no scuba diving
if previous medical condition (diabetes, hypertension, cervical defects) then Dr. will need to decide about physical activity

69

pelvic inflammatory disorders
-types
-S/S
-complications
-Tx

types
-infection of the cervix, uterus, or fallopian tubes
-chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most common culprits
S/S
-abdominal pain
-high-grade fever
-nausea
-abnormal vaginal discharge
complications
-infertility
-ectopic pregnancy
-chronic pelvic pain
Tx
-antibiotics

70

ovarian cysts
-etiology
-if rupture

etiology
-fibrous cysts or fluid filled sacs can form within urogenital system
-may cause unusual bleeding or interference with menstrual cycle and estrogen production
if rupture
-internal hemorrhaging
-abdominal pain
-peritenosis
-shock
-sometimes death

71

explain female athlete triad
-what are three components
-how are they related
-how may this present in active individuals

components
-amenorrhea (any menstrual irregularity)
-disordered eating (overall energy availability)
-osteoporosis
related
-disordered eating and exercise can lead to amenorrhea and osteoporosis

72

prostate cancer
-S/S
-Tx
-RTP

S/S
-no reliable S/S in early prostate cancer
-fatigue
-weight loss
-hematuria
-urinary retention
-urinary incontinence
-back pain
Tx
-radiation and hormone therapy
-radiation to metastasized areas as needed
RTP
-during treatment is okay if they feel well enough and no significant side effects