Medical Issues Vocab #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Vocab #2 Deck (72):
1

pharmacodynamics

the actions of a drug on the body

2

pharmacodynamics components

mechanisms of action
drug interactions
side effects
adverse reactions
allergic reactions

3

pharmacotherapeutics

the study of the therapeutic uses and effects of drugs

4

pharmacokinetics

how the body acts on a drug

5

pharmacokinetics components

absorption
distribution
metabolism
elimination

6

absorption

process of getting the drug into the body through a variety of routes

7

absorption routes

oral
rectal
vaginal
intravenous
intramuscular
inhalation
topical

8

distribution

the process of delivering the drug throughout the tissues and fluids of the body

9

factors that effect distribution

whether the drug is fat or water soluble
the drug's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier

10

hydrophilicity

water solubility

11

lipophilicity

fat solubility

12

metabolism

process by which a drug is changed into one or more chemical entities that differ from the parent drug

13

metabolism primary location

liver

14

elimination

process of getting a drug out of the body
includes the elimination of the drug and its metabolites

15

elimination methods

renal excretion
fecal excretion

16

half-life

the length of time that it takes for blood levels or tissue levels of a drug to decrease by one half;

17

half-life is ___ ___ to the volume of distribution and ____ ____ to the clearance

directly proportional
inversely proportional

18

enteral administration

orally admitted

19

parenteral ddministration

not orally admitted

20

iontophoresis

the administration of a drug into the body via electricity

21

phonophoresis

the administration of a drug into the body via ultrasound

22

agonist drugs

drugs that attach to cellular receptors in the body, causing stimulation of the receptor

23

antagonist drugs

drugs that attach to cellular receptors in the body, causing inhibition of the receptor

24

corticosteroids

a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is used to treat inflammatory and allergic diseases

25

corticosteroids divisions

glucocorticosteroids (carb. metabolism)
mineralocorticosteroids (regulate electrolyte imbalance)

26

prothrombin time

test used to time clot formation

27

prothrombin time uses

can detect defects in the ability of the blood to coagulate, which are usually caused by a deficiency of factor V, VII, or X

28

narcotic analgesics

pain-relieving agents that stimulate the opiate receptors

29

local anesthetics

drugs that reversibly block nerve conduction near the site of administration

30

antibiotic

drug used to treat bacterial infections

31

bactericidal

antibiotics that disrupt the cell wall synthesis

32

bacteriostatic

antibiotics that inhibit further replication of the bacteria but do not cause cell death

33

empirical therapy

treatment derived from practical experience or observation rather than the scientific method

34

antivirals

drugs used for treating viral infections

35

antifungals

drugs used for treating fungal infection

36

bronchodilators
-used especially for...

a substance that opens (dilates) constricted bronchial tubes to aid breathing
used especially for asthma

37

antihistamines

chemicals that bind to histamine ranaphylaxiseceptors, inhibiting histamine from binding to them and thus preventing the itching, rhinitis, and edema that would result

38

decongestants

drugs that relieve mucus congestion of the upper respiratory tract

39

hyperemia

an increase in blood flow to a body part
characterized by reddening of the skin

40

anaphylaxis

extreme sensitivity to an injected antigen, especially a protein, as a result of a previous injection

41

potentiation

to increase the individual action or effectiveness of two drugs by administering them in combination

42

drug tolerance

the decrease in a patient's reaction to a certain drug, leading to a higher dose of the drug being needed to achieve the same effect

43

phytomedicine

the use of plants and plant components for the treatment and prevention of various health concerns

44

adrenergics

a drug having an epinephrine effect

45

antiemetics

a substance that is useful in the prevention of nausea or vomiting

46

antitussives

a substance used to suppress coughing

47

expectorants

substances that promote the expulsion of phlegm and other fluid from the respiratory tract

48

sublingual or on the underside of the tongue

situated under the tongue

49

topical

a drug that is administered to the outer areas of the body for a local effect rather than a systemic effect

50

transdermal

a drug that is applied to the skin, usually in the form of a patch, and is absorbed

51

epidural

situated on or over the dura mater of the spine

52

intradermal

within or beneath the dura mater

53

intramuscular
-why use?

the injection of the drug into the muscle
used when an IV is impractical

54

intravenous

a drug that is injected directly into a vein

55

Rx

prescription

56

bid

dis in die; twice a day

57

qid

quarter in die; four times a day

58

tid

ter in die; three times a day

59

prn

pro re nata; as needed

60

APAP

acetaminophen

61

ASA

acetylsalicylic acid

62

med

medical

63

ac

ante cibum; before a meal

64

aq

aqua; water

65

c (with a line over the top)

with

66

dc

discontinued

67

hs.

hora somni; before sleep

68

p (with a line over it)

after

69

p.c.

after meals

70

PO

by mouth

71

q.d.

quaque die; every day

72

q.h.

quaque hora; every hour