Medical Issues Endocrine Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Endocrine Pathology Deck (20):
1

S/S associated with endocrine pathology

skin changes
diaphoresis
hyperhydrosis
body or breath odor
polydipsia and polyuria
arthralgia and myalgia
muscle atrophy and weakness

2

more S/S

amenorrhea
change in mental status
praesthesia
edema
polyphagia
postural (orthostatic) hypotension
lethargy and fatigue
no pain

3

polyphagia

increased hunger

4

hyperthyroidism
-etiology
-S/S
-Tx

excess of thyroid hormone
impairs glucose metabolism
core body temperature
-increases
heart rate response to exercise
-greater than normal
treated with medication, radiation, possible removal of gland

5

most common form of hyperthyroidism

Graves' Disease

6

Graves' Disease
-S/S

tremors
weakness
difficults swallowing or speaking
fatigue
tics
enlarged thyroid gland (goiter)
heat intolerance
nervousness
sweating
weight loss

7

hypothyroidism

second most common endocrine disorder
deficiency of T3 and T4
decreased cardiac output
-decreased O2 and glucose available during exercise
S/S
-dry skin
-myalgia
-edema
-constipation
-slowed cognition
-weakness
-bilateral paresthesia
-bradycardia
-poor circulation
treated with thyroid replacement therapy

8

Thermoregulation condition: heat illness
-who's at risk
-what factors play a role in the body's ability to disperse heat
-how is heat illness prevented

who's at risk
-anyone working in a hot environment
-athletes outside in the South
what other factors?
-environment
-ability to sweat (influenced by humidity)
how is it prevented
-hydration
-safe practice temperature
-acclimatize

9

heat cramps
-severity
-S/S
-Tx

earliest, least severe heat illness
S/S
-cramps
-particularly in large muscles in the legs and trunk
-fatigue
-thirst
-sweating
Tx
-removal from heat

10

Heat syncope
-S/S
-Tx

fainting due to heat
pale skin
decreased HR
elevated body temperature
cool person down
Tx
-remove from heat
-elevate legs
-check vitals often

11

heat exhaustion
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-<103 F
-profuse sweating
-increased HR
-increase respiration rate
-decreased blood pressure
-headache
-nausea
-fatigue
-weakness/dizziness
Tx
-rapid cooling
-rehydration

12

Exertional heat stroke
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
Tx
-rapid cooling

13

exertional hyponatremia
-S/S
-treatment

Na levels drop - excessive hydration
S/S
-similar to heat stroke
-nausea
-impaired cognition
-loss of consciousness
-seizures
Tx
-refer
-administer Na

14

Type I Diabetes Mellitus

"juvenile diabetes"
autoimmune disease
inability to regulate blood glucose
S/S
-polydipsia
-polyuria
-polyphagia
-weight loss
lab results must be positive on multiple days for a diagnosis
commonly diagnosed before 25
management
-insulin
long-term health concerns
-CVD
-delayed wound healing
-peripheral neuropathy

15

Type II Diabetes Mellitus

decreased insulin receptor sensitivity
blood glucose remains elevated
predictors
-obesity
-family history
S/S
-polydipsia
-polyuria
complications
-hyperlipidemia
-arteriosclerosis
-chronic infection
-bone changes

16

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

results from pregnancy

17

normal ranges for blood glucose
-random plasma glucose
-fasting plasma glucose
-2-hour postprandial

random
-normal: 70-126 mg/dL
-pre-diabetes: 127-199
-diabetes: >200
fasting
-normal: 70-100
-pre-diabetes: 100-125
-diabetes

18

types of insulin
-fast

fast
-effective 5-30 minutes after ingestion
-peak 1-4 hours
-lasts 4-8 hours
slow
-effective 2-4 hours
-peak 8-14 hours
-lasts about 24 hours

19

hypoglycemia

low blood glucose levels
common with type I diabetics
<70 mg/dL
S/S
-sudden onset
-hunger
-decreased performance
-slurred speech
-autonomic signs (pallor, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tremors)
-confusion
-headache
-blurred vision
-dizziness
-fatigue
Tx
-give them sugar

20

hyperglycemia

high blood glucose levels
"diabetic coma" or "ketoacidosis"
>200 mg/dL
S/S
-gradual onset
-thirst
-dehydration
-loss of consciousness
-abdominal pain
-fruity odor on breath
-lethargy
-confusion
Tx
-remove from activity
-insulin