Medical Issues Ch. 9 Flashcards Preview

Medical Issues in Athletic Training > Medical Issues Ch. 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Issues Ch. 9 Deck (31):
1

viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)
-S/S
-Tx
-referral

S/S
-diarrhea
-nausea
-vomiting
-abdominal spasms
-fever
-aches and chills
-only lasts up to 48 hours
Tx
-supportive treatment
-attention to hydration
-OTC anti-diarrheals and antiemetics
-BRAT diet
refer if symptoms persist >48 hours

2

BRAT diet

bananas
rice
apple sauce
toast

3

food poisoning
-S/S
-Tx
-Referral
-RTP

S/S
-diarrhea
-nausea
-vomiting
-severe abdominal cramping
-high fever
-lasts longer than 48 hours
Tx
-OTC meds.
-supportive treatment
Refer if blood in stool or severe symptoms
RTP when symptoms have completely resolved
-no fever for 24 hours

4

traveler's diarrhea
-S/S
-Tx
-Referral
-RTP

S/S
-diarrhea
-abdominal spasm
-fatigue
Tx
-OTC meds
-avoid contamination
-supportive treatment
Refer if blood in stool or symptoms >3 days
RTP when symptoms have completely resolved

5

parasitic infections
-S/S
-x
-Referral

S/S
-giardia
--significant gas
--diarrhea
--dull abdominal cramping and bloating
-entamoeba
--chronic intermittent diarrhea
--bloody diarrhea
--abdominal pain
--weight loss
Tx
-prompt diagnosis and referral is paramount
physician will determine RTP and treatment guidelines

6

dyspepsia
-S/S
-Tx
-referral

S/S
-irritation of the mucosum in the upper GI
-common heartburn
-indigestion
-burning under the sternum
Tx
-dietary changes
-OTC antacids (taken after meals and before bedtime)
-separate dosing of antacids with other drugs at least 2 hours
Refer for stronger meds. with chronic heartburn
refer
-weight loss
-abnormal masses in the abdomen
-hematochezia
-fever

7

dyspepsia DDx

gastroesophageal reflux
ulcer

8

gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)
-S/S
-Tx
-Referral

gastroesophageal sphincter malfunctions
S/S
-more frequent and intense than dyspepsia
-heartburn
-chest pain
-belching
-regurgitation of food and acid
-possible
--asthma-like symptoms
--chronic cough and laryngitis
Tx
-changes in lifestyle behaviors (stress, food, etc.)
-PPI and H2 blockers inhibit acid production (taken before a meal)
Referral necessary if persists for several weeks or becomes worse

9

PPI

proton pump inhibitor
-nexium

10

H2 blockers

reduce acid

11

hiatal hernia
-S/S
-Tx

small HH's = to sx
causes GERD
-gastroesophageal sphincter is forced open
worse when lying down
relieved when sitting up
Tx
-medication and surgery

12

peptic ulcer disease
-S/S
-Tx

intermittent pain in the upper and middle abdomen
pain can radiate to the thoracic spine, chest and neck
eating may make it better or worse
pain at night is common
recurrent vomiting and loss of appetite may cause weight loss
perforated ulcers can cause bloody vomit (hematemesis) or "coffee ground" vomit
Tx
-treat the cause
-avoid irritants
-antacids and antibiotics for H Phlori
-PPIs and H2 blockers help
-scope to make sure no tumors are present

13

inflammatory bowel disease
-types

autoimmune disease
-Crohn's Disease
-Ulcerative Colitis

14

inflammatory bowel disease
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-abdominal pain
-chronic diarrhea
-hematochezia
-weight loss
-palpable abdominal mass
-loss appetite
-skin rash
-intermittent joint pain
Tx
-no cure
-managed
--diet
--lifestyle changes
--medication
--surgery

15

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
-4 types
-S/S
-Tx

4 types
-diarrhea
-constipation
-diarrhea alternating with constipation
-bloating and generalized abdominal discomfort
S/S
-complaints of urgency or incomplete evacuation
Tx
-treat cause
--psychosocial evenst
--poor diet
--reasonable physical activity
-OTC meds
-no limitatins with IBS

16

appendicitis
-S/S

S/S
-begins as generalized abdominal pain
-pain centralizes to the LRQ in about 12 to 18 hours
-McBurney's Point; "Jar Sign"
-nausea and loss of appetite; not relieved with a bowel movement
-low grade fever may be present with infection
-patient has an unwillingness to stand straight up

17

McBurney's Point

halfway between ASIS and belly button

18

Jar Sign

rebound tenderness
-pain when you release after pushing into a tissue

19

diverticulosis and diverticulitis

diverticulosis
-herniations of the mucosa and submucosa through the muscular layer of the intestinal wall
-10% of Americans
diverticulitis
-obstruction of the herniation (feces)

20

diverticulosis and diverticulitis
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-diverticulosis is commonly asymptomatic
-diverticulitis
--severe abdominal cramping
--constant pain in LLQ
--radiating pain
--constipation
--diarrhea
--fever
-rectal bleeding
Tx
-high fiber diet
-light exercise
-severe cases
--antibiotics
--emergency surgery

21

hemorrhoids
-S/S
-Tx

S/S
-blood with defecation
-pain and itching, especially during sitting
Tx
-changes in diet
-topical medications
-surgery

22

abdominal trauma
-refer if...
-most susceptible organs

refer if...
-persistent abdominal pain
-localized tenderness
-abdominal rigidity
-upper GI signs
-bruising
...following trauma
most susceptible
-spleen
-liver

23

spleen trauma
-S/S

shock
Kehr's sign
-left shoulder
persistent abdominal pain, local tenderness in the LUQ, abdominal rigidity
nausea and vomiting

24

splenomegaly

enlarged spleen
-associated with mono

25

liver trauma
-S/S

persistent abdominal pain
RUQ tenderness
upper GI signs (nausea, vomiting)

26

hepatic-biliary diseases

hepatitis
cirrhosis
gallstones and gallbladder disease
pancreatitis

27

hepatitis
-what is it?
-stages of infection

what is it?
-"inflammation of the liver"
-viral infection or liver toxicity
-A, B, C, D - type refers to the virus
-A: close personal contact
-B-D: body fluids
stages
-initial: asymptomatic, virus highly communicable
-icteric: general S/S appear
--fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, joint pain
-recovery
-->4 months
--fatigue is common

28

cirrhosis
-result of
-what is it?
-S/S
-Tx

result of chronic liver disease and malnutrition
produces cellular damage and necrosis
S/S
-ascites
-splenomegaly
-central and peripheral neurological signs
-GI system signs and symptoms
not curable
address the underlying cause

29

gallstones and gallbladder disease

cholelithiasis: gallstones
cholecystitis: gallbladder disease
both produce intermittent RUP pain that worsens after meals that include fatty foods
-gallstones account for nearly 20% of all hospital admissions among adults
-cholecystitis results when gallstones block the cystic duct
--fever, jaundice, vomiting, RUQ tenderness, referred right should pain suggest an acute gallbladder attack

30

pancreatitis

occurs when pancreatic enzymes become active within the pancreas rather than the duodenum, resulting in self-digestion of pancreatic cells
-S/S
--severe peritonitis
--sudden and excruciating epigastric and LUQ pain
--left shoulder pain
--LUQ rigidity
--shock
-medical emergency

31

fecal-oral route

sewage contamination
-relates to stomach flu