Medical Issues Ch. Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Issues Ch. Immune System Deck (35):
1

infecton

a normal immune system response that defends the body against foreign microorganisms
physical, behavioral, psychological, environmental, and nutritional all affect immune system functions

2

transmission
-why are athletes at more risk?

airborne
direct contact
bloodborne
water and footborne
athletes
-sharing
-travel
-more contact

3

host
vector
contagious vs. communicable

host
-original carrier of the disease
vector
-middle carrier
contagious
-spread through direct contact
-includes vector
communicable
-spread by a vector

4

immunodeficiency disorders

body lacks the ability to fight foreign microorganisms

5

autoimmune disorders

body attacks itself

6

immunodeficiency disorders
autoimmune disorders

immunodeficiency
-body can't build up enough to prevent infection
autoimmune
-body attacks own body

7

thymus

located between the chest wall and the heart
gland
produces T-cells
extremely active in children

8

spleen

located in upper left quadrant of the abdomen
filters blood and lymph
initiates immune response

9

lymph system

lymph
lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes

10

lymph

clear white fluid
collects plasma and debris

11

lymphatic vessels

picks up lmph

12

lymph nodes
-which can be felt as swollen

filters lymph
which?
-axillary
-neck
-groin

13

bone marrow function

RBC and WBC production

14

WBC

granulocytes
-neutrophils
-basophils
-eosinophils
lymphocytes
-B-cells
-T-cells
monocytes
-macrophages

15

antibodies

created by body fight specific antigens

16

complement system

works with antibodies to fight off the antigens

17

immune system first line of defense

mucous membrane

18

second line of defense

general/nonspecific response
specific adaptive/response
-cell-mediated component
-humoral response

19

humoral response

activated proteins and B cells in the bloodstream

20

cell-mediated component

activation of specific immune cells
-antibody/antigen component

21

general response

increases overall metabolism
substances released from macrophages, monocytes, T cells
protein complement activation: bind to foreign particles
produces a fever

22

specific response

activated T cells and B cells
stimulated by antigens
B cells produce antibodies
antibodies then cue phagocytes

23

vaccinations

B cells "remember" antigens

24

what happens to the body during this process

muscle strength and energy inhibited
increased insulin response
fat metabolism decreases
aerobic function is inhibited

25

effects of exercise

moderate exercise has a small beneficial effect
prolonged, intense exercise suppresses the immune system
-marathon training
viral and parasitic infections almost always increase with exercise

26

common S/S of infection

fever
-low-grade: 102
fatigue
lymphadenitis
localized pain, redness, heat, swelling
unusual muscle or joint pain

27

exercise w/ fever

contraindicated
fever free for 24 hours

28

infectious mononucleosis

"kissing disease"
Epstein-Barr virus
common in college-aged athletes
incubation period
-10-50 days

29

infectious mononucleosis
-S/S
-Dx
-Tx
-RTP

S/S
-fatigue
-pharyngitis
-fever
-swollen lymph nodes
-spleenomegaly
Dx
-mononucleosis spot test (monospot) - blood test
Tx
-rest
-hydration
RTP
-spleen tenderness gone
-up to 1 or 2 months

30

mumps
-S/S
-Dx
-Tx
-Prevention

contagious viral disease
5-15 y/o children
2-3 week incubation period
largely airborne
S/S
-parotitis (neck swelling on one side)
-headache
-fever
-malaise
-vomiting
-neck stiffness
-pain with chewing or swallowing
Dx
-S/S
Tx
-isolation
-supportive (symptomatic) treatment
Prevention
-vaccination

31

rubeola
-S/S
-Dx
-Tx
-prevention

"measles"
highly communicable
airbone
S/S
-rash
-fever
Dx
-nasal swab to test for an antibody
Tx
-symptomatic care
prevention
-vaccination
-MMR immunization

32

Rubella
-S/S
-Dx
-Tx
_Prevention

"German measles"
acute contagious virus
during first trimester can cause severe congenital defects
S/S - last about 3 days
-fever and rash
-cough
-headache
-swollen lymph nodes
-conjunctivitis
Dx
-S/S
Tx
-supportive care
Prevention
-vaccination

33

chicken pox
-S/S
-Tx
-RTP

varicella
highly communicable
common childhood disease
S/S
-headache
-rash
--moves to vesicles
-itchy
Tx
-antivirals can shorten the symptoms
-runs course in 3-4 days
RTP
-fully asymptomatic
-all vesicles must be crusted over

34

rheumatoid arthritis
-S/S
-Tx
-athletic participation

autoimmune disorder
occurs in synovial lining of a joint
-body incorrectly recognizes it as a foreign substance and attacks it
S/S
-bilateral inflammation of joints
-morning stiffness
-can lead to joint deformity and disability
Tx
-lifetime medication
-symptomatically treated
--NSAID or corticosteroids
athletic participation
-depends on severity of symptoms
-done under the care of a physician

35

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
-S/S
-Tx
-Effects of exercise

immune system depression
HIV primarily impairs T cells
-prevents creation of antibodies
S/S - occur within month of infection
-fever
-body aches
-rash
-swollen lymph nodes
after 1 - 3 weeks these symptoms subside
-without treatment patients can display major neurological, GI, or pulmonary symptoms within a few years
50% of people with HIV will develop AIDS
-AIDS is the development of a rare disease as a result of an impaired immune system
Tx
-antiviral therapy
-no cure
effects of exercise
-good question